Quercus palmeri is a species of oak known by the common name Palmer oak, or Palmer's oak. It is native to California (as far north as populations just south and east of the San Francisco Bay), Baja California, Southern Nevada, and in Arizona through the transition zone to the eastern Mogollon Rim, where it grows in canyons, mountain slopes, washes, and other dry habitats.[3][4][5]

Quercus palmeri
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Subgenus: Quercus subg. Quercus
Section: Quercus sect. Protobalanus
Q. palmeri
Binomial name
Quercus palmeri
Natural range of Quercus palmeri
  • Quercus chrysolepis var. palmeri (Engelm.) Engelm.
  • Quercus dunnii Kellogg ex Curran

Description Edit

Quercus palmeri is a shrub or small tree growing 2 to 6 meters in height. It branches into angular twigs and is reddish brown. The leaves are 1 to 3 centimetres (38 to 1+18 inches) in length. They are stiff, leathery, and brittle, their edges wavy with sharp spine-teeth. The upper surface is shiny, waxy, and olive green in color, the lower gray-green and coated with glandular hairs. The fruit is an acorn with a hairy cap up to 2.5 cm (1 in) wide and a blunt-ended nut 2 to 3 cm (34 to 1+14 in) long.[4]

Cluster of clonal individuals

Quercus palmeri usually grows in small populations, some of which are actually all clones of a single plant.[4] One such clone in the Jurupa Mountains in Riverside County, California, named the Jurupa Oak, was determined to be over 13,000 years old, a single individual living as a relict from the Pleistocene.[6] It is therefore one of the oldest living plants in the world.

Taxonomy Edit

Quercus palmeri is placed in Quercus section Protobalanus.[7]

Quercus dunnii Kellogg, common name Dunn oak, is synonymous with Palmer oak. Palmer oak does not occur in New Mexico; the specimens were misidentified and later corrected to Quercus grisea, per SEINet. Per FNA, the population of golden oaks in eastern Arizona appear to be introgressed Quercus chrysolepis and Q. palmeri, best called Q. chrysolepis aff. Q. palmeri. These populations of Q. chrysolepis demonstrate historical hybridization between Q. chrysolepis and Q. palmeri.[8]Quercus palmeri was recently discovered in Southern Nevada in Christmas tree pass that was previously only know from fossils.[9]

References Edit

  1. ^ Beckman, E. (2017). "Quercus palmeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T78970940A78970982. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T78970940A78970982.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Quercus palmeri Engelm.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List. Note that this website has been superseded by World Flora Online
  3. ^ "Quercus palmeri". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Nixon, Kevin C. (1997). "Quercus palmeri". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 3. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ SEINet, Southwestern Biodiversity, Arizona chapter
  6. ^ May, M. R., et al. (2009). Pleistocene clone of Quercus palmeri Engelm. PLoS ONE
  7. ^ Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido W.; Manos, Paul S.; Deng, Min & Hipp, Andrew L. (2017). "Appendix 2.1: An updated infrageneric classification of the oaks" (xls). figshare. Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  8. ^ "Quercus palmeri in Flora of North America @". Efloras.org. Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  9. ^ "SEINet Portal NetworkDetailed Collection Record Information".

External links Edit