Qaleen (Kaleen, Kalin, قالین) is a type of hand knotted piled carpet.[1] [2] The term is used throughout Turkey, Iran and Central Asia, and making qaleens is currently practised as a handicraft in Turkey and Iran.[3] Artisans may take at least two months to make one qaleen.[4] The craft was learned from Persians by artisians of Kashmir in Indian subcontinent.[5] These knotted pile carpets were blend of Persian and Indian craftsmanship. ''Qaleens'' or ''Ghalichas'' were made in Kashmir [6] region of India and Pakistan.[7]


Qaleen is a word meaning carpet in a number of languages, including Arabic,[8] Turkish[3] and Urdu.[9][10]


Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin king Budshah introduced "Kal baffi" craft (hand knotted carpets) from Persia to Kashmir in 15th century. Sultan brought carpet weavers from Persia and central Asia in to Kashmir to train the local inhabitants.[5]


Mechanization and Industrialisation is a threat to many ancient crafts including Qaleen bafi (weaving).[11] Now Qaleens are made with looms and powerlooms in many parts of India and Pakistan.[12] Islamabad is a centre for qaleem manufacturing, with around 80,000 workers employed in this trade.[13]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ ''Another local woollen product is an ornately patterned woollen rug , known as qaleen . The usual weft threads are used in making the galeen , but in this case , the warp thread is purchased from the market . Very delicate patterns and designs ...'' Persistence and Transformation in the Eastern Hindu Kush A Study of Resource Management Systems in Mehlp Valley, Chitral, North Pakistan By Fazlur Rahman · 2007
  2. ^ Gajrani, S. (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India. Gyan Publishing House. p. 198. ISBN 978-81-8205-060-0.
  3. ^ a b Mousavi, S. A. (2018-10-24). The Hazaras of Afghanistan. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-80016-0.
  4. ^ Community, Direct Create (2020-02-14). "Kaleen (Carpets) making from Kashmir". Medium. Retrieved 2020-12-24.
  5. ^ a b ''Origin: Once upon time, from Persia a Sufi mystic named Hazrat Mir Syed Ali Hamdani visited Kashmir. His caravan comprised highly skilled weavers and came via the silk route. And thus, Kashmir became the land of carpet weaving. Another school of thought believes, in 15th century, Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin king Budshah introduced this craft to Kashmir.  However, both theories find comfort in the fact that artisans were invited from Persia to train Kashmiris in the art of spinning and weaving.  These hand knotted carpets are locally known as KalBaffi or Qaleen.''
  6. ^ ''In Chapter V, the book is having a little twist, putting forth the tale of artisans of Kashmir, while they, Child and Angel, are on the top of Shankar Acharya hills. In the very Chapter, We’re being pioneered to a new character, Zubair. Who’s dealing with the business of Qaleen bafi. And, reaches to the upper areas of Bandipora to do Qaleen (Kashmiri handmade carpet) trade.'' ‘The Dying Whisper of a Never Born Child’ on Kashmir
  7. ^ Mughal buildings. ... Nowadays knotted pile carpets Qaleens or Ghalichas made in Pakistan are still entirely dependent on imported designs among which the Bokhara Pakistan Quarterly - Volumes 10-11 - Page 62
  8. ^ Hayes, Fletcher Fulton Compton (1859). Synopis of the Grammar of Modern Arabic: With a Vocabulary and Dialogues. p. 159.
  9. ^ "Urdu Word قالین - Qaleen Meaning in English is Carpets". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2020-12-22.
  10. ^ "قالین into English translation and word in English | ڈکشنری". Retrieved 2020-12-23.
  11. ^ Mehra, Puja. "The rise of the machines: Kashmir's weavers fear for their future". Retrieved 2020-12-24.
  12. ^ "A Fading Art". Kashmir Life. 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2020-12-24.
  13. ^ Qazi, S. A. (2005). Systematic Geography of Jammu and Kashmir. APH Publishing. p. 112. ISBN 978-81-7648-786-3.