Purdah (pre-election period)

Purdah (/ˈpɜːrdə/) is the period in the United Kingdom between the announcement of an election and the formation of the new elected government. It affects civil servants, who must be politically impartial,[1] preventing central and local government from making announcements about any new or controversial government initiatives that could be seen to be advantageous to any candidates or parties in the forthcoming election. Purdah does not apply to candidates for political office. Where a court determines that actual advantage has been given to a candidate, this may amount to a breach of Section 2 of the Local Government Act 1986.

The name has been criticised for its sexist origins,[2][3] and various public bodies have dropped it in favour of terms like "pre-election period" and "heightened sensitivity".[4][5][6]

Etymology edit

The word purdah is Hindustani in origin and literally refers to a curtain or veil. Purdahs were traditionally used to screen women from male view, and the word came to be a general term for the South Asian practices of segregating the sexes and keeping women's bodies concealed.[7][8][9][10][11][12] In English use, the word has the extended sense of "a period of seclusion or isolation", hence its use in politics.[13]

Practice and legal status edit

The purdah period typically begins six weeks before the scheduled election, in each authority on the day the notice of election is published; for the 2017 elections to Combined Authority Mayors, purdah began on 23 March. For the 8 June 2017 United Kingdom general election, purdah began on 22 April,[14] and for the 12 December 2019 United Kingdom general election, purdah commenced on 6 November.

Purdah has been imposed in ministerial guidance since at least the early 20th century reflecting an earlier "self-denying ordinance", and has considerable moral authority, its breach carrying with it in worst cases the possibility of actions for abuse of power and misconduct in public office. Otherwise its lack of statute or common law means different local authorities adopt different standards as to the extent to which they observe the convention,[15] and executives are always mindful of the possibility of decisions being open to judicial review on the grounds of legitimate expectations, breach of natural justice, or procedural impropriety if purdah is breached. Where observed by executive officers, purdah bars entering into any transactions or carrying out any works which would clearly or directly conflict with the stated intentional commitments (manifesto) of the cabinet or shadow cabinet in any authority. When local elections are being held at the same time as a general election, this higher standard is usually applied.[16]

At the national level, major decisions on policy are postponed until after the purdah period, unless it is in the national interest to proceed, or a delay would waste public money. The Cabinet Office issues guidance before each election to civil servants, including those in the devolved national parliaments and assemblies.[1] Purdah also continues after the election during the time in which new MPs and ministers are sworn in. In the event of an inconclusive election result, purdah does not end until a new government forms. When no party has an overall majority, it may take some time before a minority or coalition government is formed.[citation needed]

Section 2 of the Local Government Act 1986 prohibits the publication by local authorities of material which, in whole or in part, appears to be designed to affect public support for a political party.

Local government edit

For local elections in England and Wales, the activities of local authorities in the pre-election period are governed by the Recommended code of practice for local authority publicity, Circular 01/2011, issued as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1986. Section 39 of the Local Audit and Accountability Act 2014 inserted sections 4A and 4B into the Local Government Act 1986 which provide powers for the Secretary of State to issue a notice to comply or explain, followed after non-compliance, by a direction; and to issue a more general Order if approved by Parliament across multiple authorities to comply in some respects with provisions of the recommendatory, good practice, code. The code mentions at the outset that it in no way detracts from the section 2 offence of the Act.[1][17]

Care during periods of heightened sensitivity

33. Local authorities should pay particular regard to the legislation governing publicity during the period of heightened sensitivity before elections and referendums – see paragraphs 7 to 9 of this code. It may be necessary to suspend the hosting of material produced by third parties, or to close public forums during this period to avoid breaching any legal restrictions.

34. During the period between the notice of an election and the election itself, local authorities should not publish any publicity on controversial issues or report views or proposals in such a way that identifies them with any individual members or groups of members. Publicity relating to individuals involved directly in the election should not be published by local authorities during this period unless expressly authorised by or under statute. It is permissible for local authorities to publish factual information which identifies the names, wards and parties of candidates at elections.

35. In general, local authorities should not issue any publicity which seeks to influence voters. However this general principle is subject to any statutory provision which authorises expenditure being incurred on the publication of material designed to influence the public as to whether to support or oppose a question put at a referendum. It is acceptable to publish material relating to the subject matter of a referendum, for example to correct any factual inaccuracies which have appeared in publicity produced by third parties, so long as this is even-handed and objective and does not support or oppose any of the options which are the subject of the vote.

Purdah in local government ends on the close of polls which, for ordinary elections, is usually on the first Thursday in May.

National Health Service edit

Although NHS staff are not generally regarded as civil servants, purdah is increasingly enforced on NHS bodies.[18] In 2017 it was decided that the financial result of the NHS provider sector, normally published in May each year, should be postponed until after the General Election.[19] This was controversial, and was seen by many[who?] as an attempt by the government of the day to gag NHS bodies from publishing information it saw as a threat to its general election campaign.[20]

Referendum on elected mayors edit

In the 2012 referendum on elected mayors for the core cities of Birmingham, Bradford, Bristol, Coventry, Leeds, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Sheffield, and Wakefield an extra purdah restriction was introduced, namely that from 6 April councils were not able to promote in an opinionated manner the referendum by publishing articles or issuing press releases. However, public information in the form of questions and answers was still permitted to be on the council's website, and press officers were able to respond to enquiries from the media.[21]

Social media edit

In the 2010 United Kingdom general election, specific guidance was issued to executive departments about their use of social media, as opposed to that of political representatives, for example "Use of Twitter may continue for publishing factual information only in line with guidance on news media".[22][23]

Civil servants are urged not to post anything political on social media. In the 2015 United Kingdom general election, general guidance about use of websites, blogs and social media was provided.[24]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c White, Isobel (30 March 2015). "Election 'purdah' or the pre-election period" (PDF). Parliament and Constitution Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2015.
  2. ^ Middleton, Lucy (6 November 2019). "Saying 'purdah' is 'sexist, racist and offensive' says Women's Party candidate". Metro. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Bank of England drops use of word purdah on gender grounds". Bloomberg. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  4. ^ Shipton, Martin (23 March 2007). "'Purdah' banned as Assembly poll jargon". WalesOnline. Retrieved 17 February 2022. THE term "purdah"—long used by civil servants to describe the period leading up to an election - has been banned during the Welsh Assembly election because it might offend Muslims and other religious groups.
  5. ^ "A short guide to publicity during the pre-election period". Local Government Association. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2022. The previously used term 'purdah' came into popular use across central and local government to describe the period of time immediately before elections or referendums when specific restrictions on communications activity are in place. The terms 'pre-election period' and 'heightened sensitivity' are now used instead.
  6. ^ Kidd, Patrick. "The Times Diary: Drawing veil over purdah". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 17 February 2022. Officials in Whitehall have been told that "purdah", which is derived from the Urdu for a veil or curtain to ensure women's modesty and has been used by the civil service since the Second World War, reeks of colonialism and is a tad sexist. It should be replaced by "pre-election period" or "heightened sensitivity".
  7. ^ "Purdah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 May 2008. purdah, also spelled Pardah, Hindi Parda ("screen," or "veil"), practice that was inaugurated by Muslims and later adopted by various Hindus, especially in India, and that involves the seclusion of women from public observation by means of concealing clothing (including the veil) and by the use of high-walled enclosures, screens, and curtains within the home.
  8. ^ Raheja, Gloria Goodwin; Gold, Ann Grodzins (29 April 1994). Listen to the Heron's Words: Reimagining Gender and Kinship in North India. University of California Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-520-08371-4. The literal meaning of "purdah" is, as already noted, "a curtain." In rural Rajasthan for a woman to observe purdah (in Hindi, pardā rakhnā, "to keep purdah"; pardā karnā, "to do purdah") usually includes these behavioral components, adhered to with highly varying degrees of strictness: in her marital village she doesn't leave the house, and she veils her face in front of all strangers and certain categories of male kin.
  9. ^ Strulik, Stefanie (2014). Politics Embedded: Women's Quota and Local Democracy. Negotiating Gender Relations in North India. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 50. ISBN 978-3-643-80163-0. Purdah in Urdu/Hindi ltierally means "curtain". Today, in Hindi it is used for both: in the literal sense for curtain and to refer to a system of seclusion and concealment of the body in the name of "respect" towards (male) elder (fictive and blood-related) family members and is construed as fundamental to maintaining family "honour".
  10. ^ Doane, Mary Ann (18 October 2021). Bigger Than Life: The Close-Up and Scale in the Cinema. Duke University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4780-2178-0. In this respect, it is very interesting to note that the term "purdah," designating the veil worn over a woman's face in certain Islamic societies, is derived from the Hindi and Urdu "parda," meaning "screen," "curtain," or "veil."
  11. ^ "Purdah". Lehigh University. 15 December 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2022. (Hindustani) Seclusion. "Purdah" literally means curtain or veil. In the Indian context it referred to women kept secluded from public life.
  12. ^ Shipton, Martin (23 March 2007). "'Purdah' banned as Assembly poll jargon". WalesOnline. Retrieved 17 February 2022. In Persian, "purdah" literally means "curtain" and refers to the practice of preventing men from seeing women. It takes two forms - physical segregation of the sexes, and the requirement for women to cover their bodies and conceal their form. Purdah exists in various forms in the Islamic world and in India.
  13. ^ "purdah". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OED/8686408836. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  14. ^ "General election 2017: guidance for civil servants – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Purdah – public bodies in the pre-election period". Wragge & Co. 4 March 2010. Archived from the original on 19 December 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  16. ^ "Local government publicity during the pre-election period". Practical Law Company. 21 April 2010.
  17. ^ "Pre-election guidance for NHS organisations spring 2021" (PDF). NHS England. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  18. ^ "The provider sector deficit due to be hidden until after election". Health Service Journal. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  19. ^ "Reality Check: Why is NHS budget data delayed by purdah?". BBC. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  20. ^ "Local elections and Mayoral referendum 2012". Newcastle City Council. 1 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  21. ^ "Cabinet Office – General Election Guidance 2010" (PDF). Cabinet Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  22. ^ Beckford, Martin (8 April 2010). "General Election 2010: Civil servants warned over Twitter and Facebook use during purdah". The Telegraph.
  23. ^ "Cabinet Office – General Election Guidance 2015" (PDF). Cabinet Office.

External links edit