Publius Petronius Turpilianus was a Roman senator who held a number of offices in the middle of the 1st century AD, most notably governor of Britain. He was an ordinary consul in the year 61 with Lucius Junius Caesennius Paetus as his colleague.
He was consul in 61, but in the second half of that year he laid down that office and was appointed governor of Roman Britain, replacing Gaius Suetonius Paulinus who had been removed from office in the wake of the rebellion of Boudica. In contrast to Suetonius's punitive measures, Petronius took a conciliatory approach, and conducted few military operations. In 63 he was replaced by Marcus Trebellius Maximus, and was appointed curator aquarum (superintendent of aqueducts) in Rome.
In 65 he was given a triumph, apparently for his loyalty to the emperor Nero. Following Nero's death in 68, Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, was named Emperor by the Senate. During his march from Spain to Rome, Galba had Petronius summarily executed (or ordered him to take his own life) as a commander appointed by Nero.
- Tacitus, Agricola 16; Annals 14:29, 14:39, 15:72; Histories 1:6, 1:37
- Plutarch, Life of Galba 15
- Frontinus, On the Water Supply of Rome 102
- William Smith (ed) (1870), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Vol 3 p. 1192
- Kevin K Carroll (1979), "The Date of Boudicca's Revolt", Britannia 10, pp. 197-202
- Anthony R Birley (1981), The Fasti of Roman Britain
- Paul A. Gallivan, "Some Comments on the Fasti for the Reign of Nero", Classical Quarterly, 24 (1974), pp. 292, 310