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Psychroteuthis glacialis

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Psychroteuthis glacialis, the glacial squid, is the only known species in the monotypic genus Psychroteuthis, in the family Psychroteuthidae. While only one species has been confirmed, two undescribed species also probably exist. The species occurs in coastal waters near Antarctica and South America. It grows to a mantle length of 44 cm.[3]

Glacial squid
Psychroteuthis glacialis paralarva.jpg
Psychroteuthis glacialis paralarva (<2 cm ML) from the Ross Sea of Antarctica
Psychroteuthis glacialis paralarva2.jpg
Another view of the same specimen
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Order: Oegopsida
Family: Psychroteuthidae
Thiele, 1920
Genus: Psychroteuthis
Thiele, 1920
P. glacialis
Binomial name
Psychroteuthis glacialis
Thiele, 1920[2]


P. glacialis is known to feed on many crustaceans, fish, lanternfish, Antarctic krill, and Antarctic silverfish, and has been known to practice cannibalism.[4] Animals known to routinely feed on glacial squid include the Antarctic petrel, light-mantled sooty albatross, Ross seal, southern elephant seal, Weddell seal, Patagonian toothfish, wandering albatross, grey-headed albatross, the Adélie penguin and the emperor penguin.[5]


  1. ^ Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. (2014). "Psychroteuthis glacialis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T163026A964719. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T163026A964719.en. Downloaded on 17 March 2018.
  2. ^ Julian Finn (2016). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O (eds.). "Psychroteuthis glacialis Thiele, 1920". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  3. ^ Roper C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney & C.E. Nauen 1984. Cephalopods of the world. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
  4. ^ CephBase: Prey/Diet of Psychroteuthis glacialis Archived 2004-11-20 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ CephBase: Predators of Psychroteuthis glacialis Archived 2004-11-20 at the Wayback Machine

External linksEdit