A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons. If both partners are absent a double proxy wedding occurs.
Marriage by proxy is usually resorted to either when a couple wish to marry but one or both partners cannot attend for reasons such as military service, imprisonment, or travel restrictions; or when a couple lives in a jurisdiction in which they cannot legally marry.
Proxy weddings are not recognized as legally binding in most jurisdictions: both parties must be present. Under the English common law, if a proxy marriage is valid by the law of the place where the marriage was celebrated (the lex loci celebrationis) then it will be recognised in England.
Starting in the Middle Ages, European monarchs and nobility sometimes married by proxy. Some examples of this include:
- Mary, Queen of Hungary to Louis I, Duke of Orléans, in 1385
- Henry IV to Joanna of Navarre, the daughter of Charles d'Évreux, King of Navarre, on April 2, 1402
- Catherine of Aragon to Prince Arthur in 1499
- Charles I of England to Henrietta Maria of France on May 1, 1625
- Marie Antoinette to Louis-Auguste on April 19, 1770
- Napoleon I of France to Austrian Archduchess Marie Louise in 1810
As of 2015[update], various Internet sites offer to arrange proxy and double-proxy marriages for a fee, although the service can generally be set up by any lawyer in a jurisdiction that offers proxy marriage. Video conferencing allows couples to experience the ceremony together. A unique "space wedding" took place on August 10, 2003 when Ekaterina Dmitriev married Yuri Malenchenko, a cosmonaut orbiting the Earth in the International Space Station, by proxy in Texas, US.
In the United States, proxy marriages are provided for in law or by customary practice in Texas, Colorado, Kansas, and Montana. Of these, Montana is the only state that allows double-proxy marriage. Proxy marriages cannot be solemnized in any other U.S. states.
In 1924, a federal court recognized the proxy marriage of a resident of Portugal, where proxy marriages were recognized at the time, and a resident of Pennsylvania, where common-law marriages could be contracted at the time. The Portuguese woman was allowed to immigrate to the United States on account of the marriage, whereas she would have been inadmissible otherwise due to being illiterate.
During the early 1900s, United States proxy marriages increased significantly when many Japanese picture brides arrived at Angel Island, California. Since the early 20th century, it has been most commonly used in the United States for marriages where one partner is a member of the military on active duty.[dead link 1] In California, proxy marriage is only available to deployed military personnel. In Montana, it is available if one partner is either on active military duty or is a Montana resident. In the United states if a proxy marriage has been performed in a state that legally allows it many states will recognize it fully or will recognize it as a common law marriage. The exception to this is the state of Iowa where it is completely unrecognized.
Germany does not allow proxy marriages within its jurisdiction (§ 1311 BGB). It recognizes proxy marriages contracted elsewhere where this is possible, subject to the usual rules of private international law, unless the foreign law should be incompatible with German ordre public (art. 6 EGBGB): this is not the case with the marriage by proxy per se, would be if, e. g., the proxy was held responsible for choosing the spouse without further asking rather than only contracting a marriage with a given spouse.
Catholic Canon Law permits marriage by proxy, but requires officiants to receive authorization from the local ordinary before proceeding.
- Apt v Apt  P 83; CB (Validity of marriage: proxy marriage)  UKAIT 80
- Christopher Clarkson and Jonathan Hill (2011). The Conflict of Laws (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780199574711.
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- Barry, Dan. "Trading Vows in Montana, No Couple Required". The New York Times. March 10, 2008.
-  Archived April 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Section 40-1-301". Montana Code Annotated 2015. Montana Legislative Services. Accessed on May 19, 2016.
- "No Marriage By Proxy in Missouri". stlouiscityrecorder.org.
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- Operation ‘I Do’: Moody AFB Attorneys Help Couple Tie Knot
- Marriage by proxy in California (limited to military stationed abroad in war or conflicts)
- Ernest G. Lorenzen, "Marriage By Proxy and the Conflict of Laws" (1932)
- Double Proxy Marriage in Montana (limited to Montana residents and military stationed abroad in war or conflicts)