Protogeneia (Ancient Greek: Πρωτογένεια "the firstborn"), in Greek mythology, may refer to:
- Protogeneia, a daughter of Deucalion and Pyrrha, progenitors in Greek mythology. She was married to Locrus, but had no children; Zeus, however, who carried her off, became by her, on mount Maenalus in Arcadia, the father of Opus, Aethlius and Aetolus. According to others she was not the mother, but a daughter of Opus. Endymion is also called a son of Protogeneia.
- Protogeneia, a daughter of Calydon and Aeolia. With Ares, she was mother to Oxylus of Aetolia.
- Protogeneia, one of the daughters of Erechtheus and Praxithea. She and her sister Pandora committed suicide when Erechtheus sacrificed Chthonia, another sister of theirs.