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Pro-Indonesia militias (or pro-Indonesian militias) were paramilitary militias in East Timor that were loyal to the Indonesian government during East Timor's bid for independence in the late 1990s. They operated during the final years of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Notable militias included Aitarak, Besi Merah Putih, Laksaur, and Mahidi.[1]


Pro-Indonesia militias were responsible for multiple atrocities and mass-killings during East Timor's bid for independence and transitional period. This led to the 1999 East Timorese crisis (known as the East Timor Scorched Earth campaign), which included notable incidents such as the Liquiçá Church, Manuel Carrascalão House, and Suai Church massacres. One of the most notorious militia leaders was Eurico Guterres, the leader of Aitarak, who was convicted and sentenced to ten years in prison for his participation in the Liquiçá Church massacre.[1]

Fictional representations of these groups, their members, and their atrocities were shown in the 2006 Australian miniseries Answered by Fire.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Robinson, Geoffrey. "People's war: militias in East Timor and Indonesia" (PDF). South East Asia Research. 9 (3): 271–318.