In Europe, positive action are measures which are targeted at protected groups in order to enable or encourage members of those groups to overcome or minimise disadvantage; or to meet the different needs of the protected group; or to enable or encourage persons in protected groups to participate in an activity. In the United Kingdom in the Equality Act 2010 ss 158-159, the term is used in the context of employment to allow selection of a candidate from an "under-represented" group, so long as he or she is no less than equally qualified compared to another potential candidate that is not from the under-represented group.
- Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Article 157(4)
- Kalanke v Freie Hansestadt Bremen  IRLR 660,  ECR I-03051 (C-450/93)
- Marschall v Land Nordrhein Westfalen  ECR I-06363 (C-409/95)
- Re Badeck’s application  2 CMLR 6 (C-158/97)
- Abrahamsson and Anderson v Fogelqvist  ECR I-05539 (C-407/98)