Republic (Plato)

(Redirected from Plato's five regimes)

The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. Politeia; Latin: De Republica[1]) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BCE, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man.[2] It is Plato's best-known work, and one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and historically.[3][4]

Republic
Oldest manuscript
Title page of the oldest complete manuscript: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Gr. 1807 (late 9th century)
AuthorPlato
Original titleΠολιτεία
CountryAncient Greece
LanguageGreek
SubjectPolitical philosophy
Publishedc. 375 BCE
TextRepublic at Wikisource

In the dialogue, Socrates discusses the meaning of justice and whether the just man is happier than the unjust man with various Athenians and foreigners.[5] They consider the natures of existing regimes and then propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison, culminating in Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), a utopian city-state ruled by a philosopher-king. They also discuss the ageing, love, theory of forms, the immortality of the soul, and the role of the philosopher and of poetry in society.[6] The dialogue's setting seems to be during the Peloponnesian War.[7]

OutlineEdit

Books I–II: Aging, Love and the Definitions of JusticeEdit

While visiting the Piraeus with Glaucon, Polemarchus, tells Socrates to join him for a romp. They eventually end up at Polemarchus' house where Socrates encounters Polemarchus' father Cephalus.

In his first philosophical conversation with the group members, Socrates gets into a conversation with Cephalus. The first real philosophical question posed by Plato in the book is when Socrates ask “is life painful at that age, or what report do you make of it?”[8] when speaking to Cephalus who is older than Socrates.

Plato is seemingly interested with aging and love and in what manner they will have on him. It is obviously a brief but salient point by Plato for it is the first real discussion in the book.

Cephalus answers by saying that many are unhappy about old age because they miss their youth. But he then goes on to say that he has met other men who do not feel this way. Cephalus then mentions a story that when he was in the presence of one of these men named Sophocles and he was ask “how do you feel about love, Sophocles are you still capable of it? To which he replied, Hush! if you please: to my great delight I have escaped from it, and feel as if I have escaped from a frantic and savage master.”[9] Cephalus then goes on to say that he feels that Sophocles has spoken wisely. Then Cephalus says that “unquestionably for old age brings us profound repose and freedom from this (love) and other passions. When the appetites have abated, and their force is diminished, the description of Sophocles is perfectly realized. It is like being delivered from a multitude of furious masters.”[10] This seems to set Socrates at ease and the conversations move on to discuss Justice.

Plato seems to be asking the question about both “love” (strong attachment and affection) and Sexual intercourse or libido (sexual desire) in this story. Plato is indicating that as we age or enter the “threshold of age”[11] (age above 65) that we can escape/release/detach from our passions and desires (those frantic and savage masters) and can now live contently and in repose. It also seems to indicate that if realizing this nonattachment and escape from love and other carnal earthly passions earlier on in life as Socrates has come to learn. It could bring freedom, contentedness and repose to ones life much sooner. One of Plato's most famous quotes is "The greatest wealth is to live content with little."[12]

Socrates then asks Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus for their definitions of justice. Cephalus defines justice as giving what is owed. Polemarchus says justice is "the art which gives good to friends and evil to enemies." Thrasymachus proclaims "justice is nothing else than the interest of the stronger." Socrates overturns their definitions and says that it is to one's advantage to be just and disadvantage to be unjust. The first book ends in aporia concerning its essence.

In the first book, two definitions of justice are proposed but deemed inadequate.[13] Returning debts owed, and helping friends while harming enemies, are commonsense definitions of justice that, Socrates shows, are inadequate in exceptional situations, and thus lack the rigidity demanded of a definition. Yet he does not completely reject them, for each expresses a commonsense notion of justice that Socrates will incorporate into his discussion of the just regime in books II through V.

At the end of Book I, Socrates agrees with Polemarchus that justice includes helping friends, but says the just man would never do harm to anybody. Thrasymachus believes that Socrates has done the men present an injustice by saying this and attacks his character and reputation in front of the group, partly because he suspects that Socrates himself does not even believe harming enemies is unjust. Thrasymachus gives his understanding of justice and injustice as "justice is what is advantageous to the stronger, while injustice is to one's own profit and advantage".[14] Socrates finds this definition unclear and begins to question Thrasymachus. Socrates then asks whether the ruler who makes a mistake by making a law that lessens their well-being, is still a ruler according to that definition. Thrasymachus agrees that no true ruler would make such an error. This agreement allows Socrates to undermine Thrasymachus' strict definition of justice by comparing rulers to people of various professions. Thrasymachus consents to Socrates' assertion that an artist is someone who does his job well, and is a knower of some art, which allows him to complete the job well. In so doing Socrates gets Thrasymachus to admit that rulers who enact a law that does not benefit them firstly, are in the precise sense not rulers. Thrasymachus gives up, and is silent from then on. Socrates has trapped Thrasymachus into admitting the strong man who makes a mistake is not the strong man in the precise sense, and that some type of knowledge is required to rule perfectly. However, it is far from a satisfactory definition of justice.

Socrates believes he has answered Thrasymachus and is done with the discussion of justice. Socrates' young companions, Glaucon and Adeimantus, continue the argument of Thrasymachus for the sake of furthering the discussion. Glaucon gives a lecture in which he argues first that the origin of justice was in social contracts aimed at preventing one from suffering injustice and being unable to take revenge, second that all those who practice justice do so unwillingly and out of fear of punishment, and third that the life of the unjust man is far more blessed than that of the just man. Glaucon would like Socrates to prove that justice is not only desirable, but that it belongs to the highest class of desirable things: those desired both for their own sake and their consequences. To demonstrate the problem, he tells the story of Gyges, who – with the help of a ring that turns him invisible – achieves great advantages for himself by committing injustices.The only reason that men are just and praise justice is out of fear of being punished for injustice. The law is a product of compromise between individuals who agree not to do injustice to others if others will not do injustice to them. Glaucon says that if people had the power to do injustice without fear of punishment, they would not enter into such an agreement. Glaucon uses this argument to challenge Socrates to defend the position that the just life is better than the unjust life. Adeimantus adds to Glaucon's speech the charge that men are only just for the results that justice brings one fortune, honor, reputation. Adeimantus challenges Socrates to prove that being just is worth something in and of itself, not only as a means to an end.

After Glaucon's speech, Adeimantus adds that, in this thought experiment, the unjust should not fear any sort of divine judgement in the afterlife, since the very poets who wrote about such judgement also wrote that the gods would grant forgiveness to those humans who made ample religious sacrifice. Adeimantus demonstrates his reason by drawing two detailed portraits, that the unjust man could grow wealthy by injustice, devoting a percentage of this gain to religious losses, thus rendering him innocent in the eyes of the gods.

Book II–V: The city and the soulEdit

Socrates suggests that they use the city as an image to seek how justice comes to be in the soul of an individual. After attributing the origin of society to the individual not being self-sufficient and having many needs which he cannot supply himself, they go on to describe the development of the city. Socrates first describes the "healthy state", but Glaucon considers this hardly different than "a city of pigs." Socrates then goes on to describe the luxurious city, which he calls "a fevered state".[15] This requires a guardian class to defend and attack on its account.

This begins a discussion concerning the type of education that ought to be given to these guardians in their early years, including the topic of what kind of stories are appropriate. They conclude that stories that ascribe evil to the gods are untrue and should not be taught. They suggest that guardians should be educated in these four cardinal virtues: wisdom, courage, justice and temperance. They also suggest that the second part of the guardians' education should be in gymnastics. With physical training they will be able to live without needing frequent medical attention: physical training will help prevent illness and weakness. Socrates asserts that both male and female guardians be given the same education, that all wives and children be shared, and that they be prohibited from owning private property.

In the fictional tale known as the myth or parable of the metals, Socrates presents the Noble Lie (γενναῖον ψεῦδος, gennaion pseudos), to explain the origin of the three social classes. Socrates proposes and claims that if the people believed "this myth...[it] would have a good effect, making them more inclined to care for the state and one another."[16]Socrates assumes each person will be happy engaging in the occupation that suits them best. If the city as a whole is happy, then individuals are happy. In the physical education and diet of the guardians, the emphasis is on moderation, since both poverty and excessive wealth will corrupt them (422a1). Without controlling their education, the city cannot control the future rulers. Socrates says that it is pointless to worry over specific laws, like those pertaining to contracts, since proper education ensures lawful behavior, and poor education causes lawlessness (425a–425c).[17]

Socrates proceeds to search for wisdom, courage, and temperance in the city, on the grounds that justice will be easier to discern in what remains (427e). They find wisdom among the guardian rulers, courage among the guardian warriors (or auxiliaries), temperance among all classes of the city in agreeing about who should rule and who should be ruled. Finally, Socrates defines justice in the city as the state in which each class performs only its own work, not meddling in the work of the other classes (433b).

The virtues discovered in the city are then sought in the individual soul. For this purpose, Socrates creates an analogy between the parts of the city and the soul (the city–soul analogy). He argues that psychological conflict points to a divided soul, since a completely unified soul could not behave in opposite ways towards the same object, at the same time, and in the same respect (436b).[18] He gives examples of possible conflicts between the rational, spirited, and appetitive parts of the soul, corresponding to the rulers, auxiliaries, and producing classes in the city. Having established the tripartite soul, Socrates defines the virtues of the individual. A person is wise if he is ruled by the part of the soul that knows “what is beneficial for each part and for the whole,” courageous if his spirited part “preserves in the midst of pleasures and pains” the decisions reached by the rational part, and temperate if the three parts agree that the rational part lead (442c–d).[19] They are just if each part of the soul attends to its function and not the function of another. It follows from this definition that one cannot be just if one doesn't have the other cardinal virtues.[18]

Book V–VI: The Ship of StateEdit

Socrates, having to his satisfaction defined the just constitution of both city and psyche, moves to elaborate upon the four unjust constitutions of these. Adeimantus and Polemarchus interrupt, asking Socrates instead first to explain how the sharing of wives and children in the guardian class is to be defined and legislated, a theme first touched on in Book III. Socrates is overwhelmed at their request, categorizing it as three "waves" of attack against which his reasoning must stand firm. These three waves challenge Socrates' claims that

  • both male and female guardians ought to receive the same education
  • human reproduction ought to be regulated by the state and all offspring should be ignorant of their actual biological parents
  • such a city and its corresponding philosopher-king could actually come to be in the real world.

In Books V–VI the abolition of riches among the guardian class (not unlike Max Weber's bureaucracy) leads controversially to the abandonment of the typical family, and as such no child may know his or her parents and the parents may not know their own children. Socrates tells a tale which is the "allegory of the good government". The rulers assemble couples for reproduction, based on breeding criteria. Thus, stable population is achieved through eugenics and social cohesion is projected to be high because familial links are extended towards everyone in the city. Also the education of the youth is such that they are taught of only works of writing that encourage them to improve themselves for the state's good, and envision (the) god(s) as entirely good, just, and the author(s) of only that which is good.

Socrates' argument is that in the ideal city, a true philosopher with understanding of forms will facilitate the harmonious co-operation of all the citizens of the city—the governance of a city-state is likened to the command of a ship, the Ship of State. This philosopher-king must be intelligent, reliable, and willing to lead a simple life. However, these qualities are rarely manifested on their own, and so they must be encouraged through education and the study of the Good.

Book VI–VII: Allegories of the Sun, Divided Line, and CaveEdit

The Allegory of the Cave primarily depicts Plato's distinction between the world of appearances and the 'real' world of the Forms.,[20] Just as visible objects must be illuminated in order to be seen, so must also be true of objects of knowledge if light is cast on them.

Plato imagines a group of people who have lived their entire lives as prisoners, chained to the wall of a cave in the subterranean so they are unable to see the outside world behind them. However a constant flame illuminates various moving objects outside, which are silhouetted on the wall of the cave visible to the prisoners. These prisoners, through having no other experience of reality, ascribe forms to these shadows such as either "dog" or "cat". Plato then goes on to explain how the philosopher is akin to a prisoner who is freed from the cave. The prisoner is initially blinded by the light, but when he adjusts to the brightness he sees the fire and the statues and how they caused the images witnessed inside the cave. He sees that the fire and statues in the cave were just copies of the real objects; merely imitations. This is analogous to the Forms. What we see from day to day are merely appearances, reflections of the Forms. The philosopher, however, will not be deceived by the shadows and will hence be able to see the 'real' world, the world above that of appearances; the philosopher will gain knowledge of things in themselves. At the end of this allegory, Plato asserts that it is the philosopher's burden to reenter the cave. Those who have seen the ideal world, he says, have the duty to educate those in the material world. Since the philosopher recognizes what is truly good only he is fit to rule society according to Plato.

Book VIII–IX: Plato's five regimesEdit

In Books VIII–IX stand Plato's criticism of the forms of government. Plato categorized governments into five types of regimes: aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, and tyranny.

The starting point is an imagined, alternate aristocracy (ruled by a philosopher-king); a just government ruled by a philosopher king, dominated by the wisdom-loving element. Aristocracy degenerates into timocracy when, due to miscalculation on the part of its governing class, the next generation includes persons of an inferior nature, inclined not just to cultivating virtues but also producing wealth. In a timocracy, governors will apply great effort in gymnastics and the arts of war, as well as the virtue that pertains to them, that of courage. As the emphasis on honor is compromised by wealth accumulation, it is replaced by oligarchy. The oligarchic government is dominated by the desiring element, in which the rich are the ruling class. Oligarchs do, however, value at least one virtue, that of temperance and moderation—not out of an ethical principle or spiritual concern, but because by dominating wasteful tendencies they succeed in accumulating money. As this socioeconomic divide grows, so do tensions between social classes. From the conflicts arising out of such tensions, the poor majority overthrow the wealthy minority, and democracy replaces the oligarchy preceding it. In democracy, the lower class grows bigger and bigger. A visually appealing demagogue is soon lifted up to protect the interests of the lower class, who can exploit them to take power in order to maintain order. Democracy then degenerates into tyranny where no one has discipline and society exists in chaos. In a tyrannical government, the city is enslaved to the tyrant, who uses his guards to remove the best social elements and individuals from the city to retain power (since they pose a threat), while leaving the worst. He will also provoke warfare to consolidate his position as leader. In this way, tyranny is the most unjust regime of all.

In parallel to this, Socrates considers the individual or soul that corresponds to each of these regimes. He describes how an aristocrat may become weak or detached from political and material affluence, and how his son will respond to this by becoming overly ambitious.The timocrat in turn may be defeated by the courts or vested interests; his son responds by accumulating wealth in order to gain power in society and defend himself against the same predicament, thereby becoming an oligarch. The oligarch's son will grow up with wealth without having to practice thrift or stinginess, and will be tempted and overwhelmed by his desires,[21] so that he becomes democratic, valuing freedom above all.[21] The democratic man is torn between tyrannical passions and oligarchic discipline, and ends up in the middle ground: valuing all desires, both good and bad. The tyrant will be tempted in the same way as the democrat, but without an upbringing in discipline or moderation to restrain him. Therefore, his most base desires and wildest passions overwhelm him, and he becomes driven by lust, using force and fraud to take whatever he wants. The tyrant is both a slave to his lusts, and a master to whomever he can enslave.Socrates points out the human tendency to be corrupted by power leads down the road to timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. From this, he concludes that ruling should be left to philosophers, who are the most just and therefore least susceptible to corruption. This "good city" is depicted as being governed by philosopher-kings; disinterested persons who rule not for their personal enjoyment but for the good of the city-state (polis). The philosophers have seen the "Forms" and therefore know what is good. They understand the corrupting effect of greed and own no property and receive no salary. They also live in sober communism, eating and sleeping together.

Book X: Myth of ErEdit

Concluding a theme brought up most explicitly in the Analogies of the Sun and Divided Line in Book VI, Socrates finally rejects any form of imitative art and concludes that such artists have no place in the just city. He continues on to argue for the immortality of the psyche and even espouses a theory of reincarnation. He finishes by detailing the rewards of being just, both in this life and the next. Artists create things but they are only different copies of the idea of the original. "And whenever any one informs us that he has found a man who knows all the arts, and all things else that anybody knows, and every single thing with a higher degree of accuracy than any other man—whoever tells us this, I think that we can only imagine to be a simple creature who is likely to have been deceived by some wizard or actor whom he met, and whom he thought all-knowing, because he himself was unable to analyze the nature of knowledge and ignorance and imitation."[22]

And the same object appears straight when looked at out of the water, and crooked when in the water; and the concave becomes convex, owing to the illusion about colours to which the sight is liable. Thus every sort of confusion is revealed within us; and this is that weakness of the human mind on which the art of conjuring and deceiving by light and shadow and other ingenious devices imposes, having an effect upon us like magic.[22]

He speaks about illusions and confusion. Things can look very similar, but be different in reality. Because we are human, at times we cannot tell the difference between the two.

And does not the same hold also of the ridiculous? There are jests which you would be ashamed to make yourself, and yet on the comic stage, or indeed in private, when you hear them, you are greatly amused by them, and are not at all disgusted at their unseemliness—the case of pity is repeated—there is a principle in human nature which is disposed to raise a laugh, and this which you once restrained by reason, because you were afraid of being thought a buffoon, is now let out again; and having stimulated the risible faculty at the theatre, you are betrayed unconsciously to yourself into playing the comic poet at home.

With all of us, we may approve of something, as long we are not directly involved with it. If we joke about it, we are supporting it.

Quite true, he said. And the same may be said of lust and anger and all the other affections, of desire and pain and pleasure, which are held to be inseparable from every action—in all of them poetry feeds and waters the passions instead of drying them up; she lets them rule, although they ought to be controlled, if mankind are ever to increase in happiness and virtue.[22]

Sometimes we let our passions rule our actions or way of thinking, although they should be controlled, so that we can increase our happiness.

LegacyEdit

Ancient GreeceEdit

Plato's most prominent pupil Aristotle, systematises many of Plato's analyses in his Politika, and criticizes the propositions of several political philosophers for the ideal city-state.

It has been suggested that Isocrates parodies the Republic in his work Busiris by showing Callipolis' similarity to the Egyptian state founded by a king of that name.[23]

Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, wrote his version of an ideal society, Zeno's Republic, in opposition to Plato's Republic.[24] Zeno's Republic was controversial and was viewed with some embarrassment by some of the later Stoics due to its defenses of free love, incest, and cannibalism and due to its opposition to ordinary education and the building of temples, law-courts, and gymnasia.

Ancient RomeEdit

CiceroEdit

The English title of Plato's dialogue is derived from Cicero's De re publica, written some three centuries later.[citation needed] Cicero's dialogue imitates Plato's style and treats many of the same topics, and Cicero's main character Scipio Aemilianus expresses his esteem for Plato and Socrates. Res publica is not an exact translation of Plato's Greek title politeia. Rather, politeia is a general term for the actual and potential forms of government for a polis or city-state, and Plato attempts to survey all possible forms of the state. Cicero's discussion is more parochial, focusing on the improvement of the participants' own state, the Roman Republic in its final stages.

TacitusEdit

In antiquity, Plato's works were largely acclaimed, but a few commentators regarded them as too theoretical. Tacitus, commented on such works as The Republic and Aristotle's Politics in his Annals (IV, 33):

  Nam cunctas nationes et urbes populus aut primores aut singuli regunt: delecta ex iis (his) et consociata (constituta) rei publicae forma laudari facilius quam evenire, vel si evenit, haud diuturna esse potest.   Indeed, a nation or city is ruled by the people, or by an upper class, or by a monarch. A government system that is invented from a choice of these same components is sooner idealised than realised; and even if realised, there will be no future for it.

In this work, Tacitus undertakes the prosaic description and minute analysis of how real states are governed, attempting to derive more practical lessons about good versus bad governance than can be deduced from speculations on ideal governments.

AugustineEdit

In the pivotal era of Rome's move from its ancient polytheist religion to Christianity, Augustine wrote his magnum opus The City of God: Again, the references to Plato, Aristotle and Cicero and their visions of the ideal state were legion: Augustine equally described a model of the "ideal city", in his case the eternal Jerusalem, using a visionary language not unlike that of the preceding philosophers.

Ibn RushdEdit

Islamic philosophers were much more interested in Aristotle than Plato, but not having access to Aristotle's Politics, Ibn Rushd (Averroes) produced instead a commentary on Plato's Republic. He advances an authoritarian ideal, following Plato's paternalistic model. Absolute monarchy, led by a philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires extensive use of coercion,[25] although persuasion is preferred and is possible if the young are properly raised.[26] Rhetoric, not logic, is the appropriate road to truth for the common man. Demonstrative knowledge via philosophy and logic requires special study. Rhetoric aids religion in reaching the masses.[27]

Following Plato, Ibn Rushd accepts the principle of women's equality. They should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers.[28][29] He also accepts Plato's illiberal measures such as the censorship of literature. He uses examples from Arab history to illustrate just and degenerate political orders.[30]

HegelEdit

Hegel respected Plato's theories of state and ethics much more than those of the early modern philosophers such as Locke, Hobbes and Rousseau, whose theories proceeded from a fictional "state of nature" defined by humanity's "natural" needs, desires and freedom. For Hegel this was a contradiction: since nature and the individual are contradictory, the freedoms which define individuality as such are latecomers on the stage of history. Therefore, these philosophers unwittingly projected man as an individual in modern society onto a primordial state of nature. Plato however had managed to grasp the ideas specific to his time:

Plato is not the man to dabble in abstract theories and principles; his truth-loving mind has recognized and represented the truth of the world in which he lived, the truth of the one spirit that lived in him as in Greece itself. No man can overleap his time, the spirit of his time is his spirit also; but the point at issue is, to recognize that spirit by its content.[31]

For Hegel, Plato's Republic is not an abstract theory or ideal which is too good for the real nature of man, but rather is not ideal enough, not good enough for the ideals already inherent or nascent in the reality of his time; a time when Greece was entering decline. One such nascent idea was about to crush the Greek way of life: modern freedoms—or Christian freedoms in Hegel's view—such as the individual's choice of his social class, or of what property to pursue, or which career to follow. Such individual freedoms were excluded from Plato's Republic:

Plato recognized and caught up the true spirit of his times, and brought it forward in a more definite way, in that he desired to make this new principle an impossibility in his Republic.[32]

Greece being at a crossroads, Plato's new "constitution" in the Republic was an attempt to preserve Greece: it was a reactionary reply to the new freedoms of private property etc., that were eventually given legal form through Rome. Accordingly, in ethical life, it was an attempt to introduce a religion that elevated each individual not as an owner of property, but as the possessor of an immortal soul.

20th centuryEdit

 
P. Oxy. 3679, manuscript from the 3rd century AD, containing fragments of Plato's Republic.

Bertrand RussellEdit

In his A History of Western Philosophy (1945), Bertrand Russell identifies three parts to the Republic:[33]

  1. Books I–V: from the attempt to define justice, the description of an ideal community (a "utopia") and the education of its Guardians;
  2. Books VI–VII: the nature of philosophers, the ideal rulers of such a community;
  3. Books VIII–X: the pros and cons of various practical forms of government.

The core of the second part is the Allegory of the Cave and the discussion of the theory of ideal forms. The third part concerns the Five Regimes and is strongly related to the later dialogue The Laws; and the Myth of Er.

Cornford, Hildebrandt, and VoegelinEdit

Eric Voegelin in Plato and Aristotle (Baton Rouge, 1957), gave meaning to the concept of 'Just City in Speech' (Books II–V). For instance, there is evidence in the dialogue that Socrates himself would not be a member of his 'ideal' state. His life was almost solely dedicated to the private pursuit of knowledge. More practically, Socrates suggests that members of the lower classes could rise to the higher ruling class, and vice versa, if they had 'gold' in their veins—a version of the concept of social mobility. The exercise of power is built on the 'noble lie' that all men are brothers, born of the earth, yet there is a clear hierarchy and class divisions. There is a tripartite explanation of human psychology that is extrapolated to the city, the relation among peoples. There is no family among the guardians, another crude version of Max Weber's concept of bureaucracy as the state non-private concern. Together with Leo Strauss, Voegelin considered Popper's interpretation to be a gross misunderstanding not only of the dialogue itself, but of the very nature and character of Plato's entire philosophic enterprise.

The paradigm of the city—the idea of the Good, the Agathon—has manifold historical embodiments, undertaken by those who have seen the Agathon, and are ordered via the vision. The centerpiece of the Republic, Part II, nos. 2–3, discusses the rule of the philosopher, and the vision of the Agathon with the Allegory of the Cave, which is clarified in the theory of forms. The centerpiece is preceded and followed by the discussion of the means that will secure a well-ordered polis (city). Part II, no. 1, concerns marriage, the community of people and goods for the guardians, and the restraints on warfare among the Hellenes. It describes a partially communistic polis. Part II, no. 4, deals with the philosophical education of the rulers who will preserve the order and character of the city-state.

In part II, the Embodiment of the Idea, is preceded by the establishment of the economic and social orders of a polis (part I), followed by an analysis (part III) of the decline the order must traverse. The three parts compose the main body of the dialogues, with their discussions of the "paradigm", its embodiment, its genesis, and its decline.

The introduction and the conclusion are the frame for the body of the Republic. The discussion of right order is occasioned by the questions: "Is justice better than injustice?" and "Will an unjust man fare better than a just man?" The introductory question is balanced by the concluding answer: "Justice is preferable to injustice". In turn, the foregoing are framed with the Prologue (Book I) and the Epilogue (Book X). The prologue is a short dialogue about the common public doxai (opinions) about justice. Based upon faith, and not reason, the Epilogue describes the new arts and the immortality of the soul.

Francis Cornford, Kurt Hildebrandt [de], and Voegelin contributed to an establishment of sub-divisions marked with special formulae in Greek:

Prologue
I.1. 327a–328b. Descent to the Piraeus
I.2–I.5. 328b–331d. Cephalus. Justice of the older generation
I.6–1.9. 331e–336a. Polemarchus. Justice of the middle generation
I.10–1.24. 336b–354c. Thrasymachus. Justice of the sophist
Introduction
II.1–II.10. 357a–369b. The question: Is justice better than injustice?
Part I
Genesis and order of the polis: II.11–II.16. 369b–376e. Genesis of the polis
II.16–III.18. 376e–412b. Education of the guardians
III.19–IV.5. 412b–427c. Constitution of the polis
IV.6–IV.19. 427c–445e. Justice in the polis
Part II
Embodiment of the idea: V.1–V.16. 449a–471c. Somatic unity of polis and the Hellenes
V.17–VI.14. 471c–502c. Rule of the philosophers
VI.19–VII.5. 502c–521c. The Idea of the Agathon
VII.6–VII.18. 521c–541b. Education of the philosophers
Part III
Decline of the polis: VIII.1–VIII.5. 543a–550c. Timocracy
VIII.6–VIII.9. 550c–555b. Oligarchy
VIII.10–VIII.13. 555b–562a. Democracy
VIII.14–IX.3. 562a–576b. Tyranny
Conclusion
IX.4–IX.13. 576b–592b Answer: Justice is better than injustice.
Epilogue
X.1–X.8. 595a–608b. Rejection of mimetic art
X.9–X.11. 608c–612a. Immortality of the soul
X.12. 612a–613e. Rewards of justice in life
X.13–X.16. 613e–621d. Judgment of the dead

GadamerEdit

In his 1934 Plato und die Dichter (Plato and the Poets), as well as several other works, Hans-Georg Gadamer describes the utopic city of the Republic as a heuristic utopia that should not be pursued or even be used as an orientation-point for political development. Rather, its purpose is said to be to show how things would have to be connected, and how one thing would lead to another—often with highly problematic results—if one would opt for certain principles and carry them through rigorously. This interpretation argues that large passages in Plato's writing are ironic, a line of thought initially pursued by Kierkegaard.

PopperEdit

The city portrayed in the Republic struck some critics as harsh, rigid, and unfree; indeed, as totalitarian. Karl Popper gave a voice to that view in his 1945 book The Open Society and Its Enemies, where he singled out Plato's state as a dystopia. Popper distinguished Plato's ideas from those of Socrates, claiming that the former in his later years expressed none of the humanitarian and democratic tendencies of his teacher.[34] Popper thought Plato's envisioned state totalitarian as it advocated a government composed only of a distinct hereditary ruling class, with the working class—who Popper argues Plato regards as "human cattle"—given no role in decision making. He argues that Plato has no interest in what are commonly regarded as the problems of justice—the resolution of disputes between individuals—because Plato has redefined justice as "keeping one's place".[35]

Strauss and BloomEdit

Some of Plato's proposals have led theorists like Leo Strauss and Allan Bloom to ask readers to consider the possibility that Socrates was creating not a blueprint for a real city, but a learning exercise for the young men in the dialogue. There are many points in the construction of the "Just City in Speech" that seem contradictory, which raise the possibility Socrates is employing irony to make the men in the dialogue question for themselves the ultimate value of the proposals. In turn, Plato has immortalized this 'learning exercise' in the Republic.

Leo Strauss identified a four-part structure to the Republic,[citation needed] perceiving the dialogues as a drama enacted by particular characters, each with a particular perspective and level of intellect:

  1. Book I: Socrates is forcefully compelled to the house of Cephalus. Three definitions of justice are presented, all are found lacking.
  2. Books II–V: Glaucon and Adeimantus challenge Socrates to prove why a perfectly just man, perceived by the world as an unjust man, would be happier than the perfectly unjust man who hides his injustice and is perceived by the world as a just man. Their challenge begins and propels the dialogues; in answering the challenge, of the "charge", Socrates reveals his behavior with the young men of Athens, whom he later was convicted of corrupting. Because Glaucon and Adeimantus presume a definition of justice, Socrates digresses; he compels the group's attempt to discover justice, and then answers the question posed to him about the intrinsic value of the just life.
  3. Books V–VI: The "Just City in Speech" is built from the earlier books, and concerns three critiques of the city. Leo Strauss reported that his student Allan Bloom identified them as: communism, communism of wives and children, and the rule of philosophers. The "Just City in Speech" stands or falls by these complications.
  4. Books VII–X: Socrates has "escaped" his captors, having momentarily convinced them that the just man is the happy man, by reinforcing their prejudices. He presents a rationale for political decay, and concludes by recounting The Myth of Er ("everyman"), a consolation for non-philosophers who fear death.[citation needed]

One of many examples is that Socrates calls the marriages of the ruling class 'sacred'; however, they last only one night and are the result of manipulating and drugging couples into predetermined intercourse with the aim of eugenically breeding guardian-warriors. Strauss and Bloom's interpretations, however, involve more than just pointing out inconsistencies; by calling attention to these issues they ask readers to think more deeply about whether Plato is being ironic or genuine, for neither Strauss nor Bloom present an unequivocal opinion, preferring to raise philosophic doubt over interpretive fact.

Strauss's approach developed out of a belief that Plato wrote esoterically. The basic acceptance of the exoteric-esoteric distinction revolves around whether Plato really wanted to see the "Just City in Speech" of Books V–VI come to pass, or whether it is just an allegory. Strauss never regarded this as the crucial issue of the dialogue. He argued against Karl Popper's literal view, citing Cicero's opinion that the Republic's true nature was to bring to light the nature of political things.[36] In fact, Strauss undermines the justice found in the "Just City in Speech" by implying the city is not natural, it is a man-made conceit that abstracts away from the erotic needs of the body. The city founded in the Republic "is rendered possible by the abstraction from eros".[37]

An argument that has been used against ascribing ironic intent to Plato is that Plato's Academy produced a number of tyrants who seized political power and abandoned philosophy for ruling a city. Despite being well-versed in Greek and having direct contact with Plato himself, some of Plato's former students like Clearchus, tyrant of Heraclea; Chaeron, tyrant of Pellene; Erastus and Coriscus, tyrants of Skepsis; Hermias of Atarneus and Assos; and Calippus, tyrant of Syracuse ruled people and did not impose anything like a philosopher-kingship. However, it can be argued whether these men became "tyrants" through studying in the academy. Plato's school had an elite student body, some of whom would by birth, and family expectation, end up in the seats of power. Additionally, it is important that it is by no means obvious that these men were tyrants in the modern, totalitarian sense of the concept. Finally, since very little is actually known about what was taught at Plato's Academy, there is no small controversy over whether it was even in the business of teaching politics at all.[38]

Fascism and Benito MussoliniEdit

Mussolini utilized works of Plato, Georges Sorel, Nietzsche, and the economic ideas of Vilfredo Pareto, to develop fascism. Mussolini admired Plato's The Republic, which he often read for inspiration.[39] The Republic expounded a number of ideas that fascism promoted, such as rule by an elite promoting the state as the ultimate end, opposition to democracy, protecting the class system and promoting class collaboration, rejection of egalitarianism, promoting the militarization of a nation by creating a class of warriors, demanding that citizens perform civic duties in the interest of the state, and utilizing state intervention in education to promote the development of warriors and future rulers of the state.[40] Plato was an idealist, focused on achieving justice and morality, while Mussolini and fascism were realist, focused on achieving political goals.[41]

Views on the city–soul analogyEdit

Many critics, both ancient and modern (like Julia Annas), have suggested that the dialogue's political discussion actually serves as an analogy for the individual soul, in which there are also many different "members" that can either conflict or else be integrated and orchestrated under a just and productive "government." Among other things, this analogical reading would solve the problem of certain implausible statements Plato makes concerning an ideal political republic.[42] Norbert Blössner (2007)[43] argues that the Republic is best understood as an analysis of the workings and moral improvement of the individual soul with remarkable thoroughness and clarity. This view, of course, does not preclude a legitimate reading of the Republic as a political treatise (the work could operate at both levels). It merely implies that it deserves more attention as a work on psychology and moral philosophy than it has sometimes received.

PracticalityEdit

The above-mentioned views have in common that they view the Republic as a theoretical work, not as a set of guidelines for good governance. However, Popper insists that the Republic, "was meant by its author not so much as a theoretical treatise, but as a topical political manifesto"[44] and Bertrand Russell argues that at least in intent, and all in all not so far from what was possible in ancient Greek city-states, the form of government portrayed in the Republic was meant as a practical one by Plato.[45]

21st centuryEdit

One of Plato's recurring techniques in the Republic is to refine the concept of justice with reference to various examples of greater or lesser injustice. However, in The Concept of Injustice,[46] Eric Heinze challenges the assumption that 'justice' and 'injustice' form a mutually exclusive pair. Heinze argues that such an assumption traces not from strict deductive logic, but from the arbitrary etymology of the word 'injustice'. Heinze critiques what he calls 'classical' Western justice theory for having perpetuated that logical error, which first appears in Plato's Republic, but manifests throughout traditional political philosophy, in thinkers otherwise as different as Aristotle, Aquinas, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel and Marx.

In 2001, a survey of over 1,000 academics and students voted the Republic the greatest philosophical text ever written. Julian Baggini argued that although the work "was wrong on almost every point, the questions it raises and the methods it uses are essential to the western tradition of philosophy. Without it we might not have philosophy as we know it."[47]

According to a survey, The Republic is the most studied book in the top universities in the United States.[48][49]

Martin Luther King Jr., nominated The Republic as the one book he would have taken to a deserted island, alongside the Bible.[50]

In fiction, Jo Walton's 2015 novel The Just City explored the consequences of establishing a city-state based on the Republic in practice.

Place in Plato's corpusEdit

The Republic is generally placed in the middle period of Plato's dialogues—that is, it is believed to be written after the early period dialogues but before the late period dialogues. However, the distinction of this group from the early dialogues is not as clear as the distinction of the late dialogues from all the others. Nonetheless, Ritter, Arnim, and Baron—with their separate methodologies—all agreed that the Republic was well distinguished, along with Parmenides, Phaedrus and Theaetetus.[51]

However, the first book of the Republic, which shares many features with earlier dialogues, is thought to have originally been written as a separate work, and then the remaining books were conjoined to it, perhaps with modifications to the original of the first book.[52]

FragmentsEdit

Several Oxyrhynchus Papyri fragments were found to contain parts of the Republic, and from other works such as Phaedo, or the dialogue Gorgias, written around 200–300 CE.[53] Fragments of a different version of Plato's Republic were discovered in 1945, part of the Nag Hammadi library, written ca. 350 CE.[54] These findings highlight the influence of Plato during those times in Egypt.

TranslationsEdit

  • Rowe, Christopher (2012). Plato: Republic. London: Penguin.
  • Sachs, Joe (2007). Plato: Republic. Newburyport: Focus Publishing.
  • Allen, R.E. (2006). Plato: The Republic. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Reeve, C.D.C. (2004). Plato: The Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett.
  • Griffith, Tom (2000). Plato: The Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Waterfield, Robin (1994). Plato: Republic. Translated, with notes and an introduction. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics.
  • Grube, G.M.A. (1992). Plato: The Republic. Revised by C.D.C. Reeve. Indianapolis: Hackett.
  • Bloom, Allan (1991) [1968]. The Republic of Plato. Translated, with notes and an interpretive essay. New York: Basic Books.
  • Lee, Desmond (1987) [1974, 1955]. Plato: The Republic. Translated with an Introduction. London: Penguin Books.
  • Sterling, Richard W.; Scott, William C. (1985). Plato: Republic. London: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Larson, Raymond (1979). Plato: The Republic. Wheeling: Harlan Davidson.
  • Cornford, F.M. (1941). The Republic of Plato. New York & London: Oxford University Press.
  • Shorey, Paul (1930). Plato: Republic. London: W. Heinemann. Edited, translated, with notes and an introduction
  • Davies, John L.; Vaughan, David J. (1929). The Republic of Plato. Translated into English, with an analysis and notes. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • Lindsay, A.D. (1906). Plato: The Republic. London: J.M. Dent.
  • Jowett, Benjamin (1871). Plato: The Republic.
  • Burges, George (1854). Plato: The Republic, Timaeus and Critias. New and literal version. London: H.G. Bohn.
  • Taylor, Thomas (1804). The Republic. London: R. Wilks.
  • Spens, Harry (1763). The Republic of Plato in Ten Books. Glasgow: Robert and Andrew Foulis.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Henri Estienne (ed.), Platonis opera quae extant omnia, Vol. 2, 1578, p. 327.
  2. ^ Brickhouse, Thomas and Smith, Nicholas D. Plato (c. 427–347 BC), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, University of Tennessee, cf. Dating Plato's Dialogues.
  3. ^ National Public Radio (8 August 2007). Plato's 'Republic' Still Influential, Author Says Archived 20 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Talk of the Nation.
  4. ^ Plato: The Republic Archived 20 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Plato: His Philosophy and his life, allphilosophers.com
  5. ^ In ancient times, the book was alternately titled On Justice (not to be confused with the spurious dialogue of the same name). Lorenz, Hendrik (22 April 2009). "Ancient Theories of Soul". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  6. ^ Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-158591-1.
  7. ^ Although "there would be jarring anachronisms if any of the candidate specific dates between 432 and 404 were assigned". Nails, Debra (2002), The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-564-9, p. 324
  8. ^ John Llewelyn, Davies (1921). The Republic of Plato. Macmillan and Company. p. 3.
  9. ^ John Llewelyn, Davies (1921). The Republic of Plato. Macmillan and Company. p. 3.
  10. ^ John Llewelyn, Davies (1921). The Republic of Plato. Macmillan and Company. p. 3.
  11. ^ John Llewelyn, Davies (1921). The Republic of Plato. Macmillan and Company. p. 3.
  12. ^ "Quote by Plato". Goodreads.
  13. ^ "The Internet Classics Archive – The Republic by Plato". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  14. ^ Plato. Book I, 344c. Plato Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2004. Print.
  15. ^ Plato; Harold North Fowler; Paul Shorey (1977). Plato in Twelve Volumes. Vol. 5–6. W. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-674-99040-1.
  16. ^ Book 3, 415c–d
  17. ^ Julia Annas, “Law in the Republic” from Virtue and Law in Plato and Beyond (Oxford Scholarship Online, 2017). DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198755746.003.0002
  18. ^ a b Brown, Eric (2017), "Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, archived from the original on 10 April 2020, retrieved 2 October 2018
  19. ^ Plato. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969.
  20. ^ Silverman, Allan (2014), "Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2 October 2018
  21. ^ a b McAleer, Sean (2020). Plato's 'Republic': An Introduction. OpenBook Publishers. pp. 229–251. doi:10.11647/obp.0229. ISBN 978-1-80064-053-5. S2CID 228927159.
  22. ^ a b c The Republic, Book X
  23. ^ Most recently, Niall Livingstone, A Commentary on Isocrates' Busiris. Mnemosyne Supplement 223. Leiden: Brill, 2001 (see review by David C. Mirhady in Bryn Mawr Classical Review Archived 25 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine). For earlier consideration of the similarities, see H. Thesleff, Studies in Platonic Chronology, Helsinki 1982, pp. 105f., and C. Eucken, Isokrates, Berlin 1983, pp. 172 ff. Both Thesleff and Eucken entertain the possibility that Isocrates was responding to an earlier version of Republic than the final version we possess.
  24. ^ Plutarch, On Stoic self-contradictions, 1034F
  25. ^ Black, Antony (2011). The History of Islamic Political Thought (2nd ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7486-3987-8.
  26. ^ Fakhry, Majid (2001), Averroes (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence, Oneworld Publications, p. 106, ISBN 978-1-85168-269-0
  27. ^ Robert Pasnau (November–December 2011). "The Islamic Scholar Who Gave Us Modern Philosophy". Humanities. 32 (6).
  28. ^ Rosenthal, Erwin I.J. (26 December 2017). "Averroës". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. p. xix.
  29. ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 110)
  30. ^ (Fakhry 2001, p. 114)
  31. ^ Hegel, "Lectures on the Philosophy of History", vol II, p. 96
  32. ^ Hegel, "Lectures on the Philosophy of History", vol II, p. 99
  33. ^ Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy, begin of Book I, part 2, ch. 14.
  34. ^ Popper accuses Plato of betraying Socrates. Hew was not the first to do so. Thomas Jefferson made the same statement in a letter to his friend John Adams in 1814, "Socrates had reason indeed to complain of the misrepresentations of Plato; for in truth his dialogues are libels on Socrates." (Jefferson, Thomas. "To John Adams Monticello, July 5, 1814". University of Groningen.) Gilbert Ryle, reviewing Popper's text just two years after its publication (Ryle, G. (1 April 1947). "Popper, K.R. – The Open Society and its Enemies". Mind. 56 (222): 167–172. doi:10.1093/mind/LVI.222.167. JSTOR 2250518.) and agreeing with him, wrote that Plato "was Socrates' Judas." (Ryle, G. (1947). p. 169). See also: Burke, T.E. (1983). The Philosophy of Popper. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-71900911-2.
  35. ^ Popper, Karl (1950) The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 1: The Spell of Plato, New York: Routledge.
  36. ^ History of Political Philosophy, co-editor with Joseph Cropsey, 3rd. ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, p.68
  37. ^ History of Political Philosophy, co-editor with Joseph Cropsey, 3rd. ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, p.60
  38. ^ Malcolm Schofield, "Plato and Practical Politics", in C. Rowe and M. Schofield (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought, Cambridge University Press 2005, pp. 293–302.
  39. ^ Moseley 2004, p. 39.
  40. ^ Sharma, Urmila. Western Political Thought. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd, 1998. p. 66.
  41. ^ Sharma, Urmila. Western Political Thought. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd, 1998. pp. 66–67.
  42. ^ For an oft-cited argument that the analogy does not work, see T. Penner, “Thought and Desire in Plato.” in G Vlastos ed., Plato, Vol. 2. Anchor Books, 1971
  43. ^ Blössner, Norbert. The City-Soul Analogy, G. R. F. Ferrari (Translator). In: G. R. F. Ferrari (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic, Cambridge University Press, 2007. (Ch. 13; pp. 345–385).
  44. ^ Popper, Karl (1950) The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 1: The Spell of Plato, New York: Routledge. p. 162.
  45. ^ Russell, B. (2004) History of Western Philosophy, end of Book I, part 2, ch. 14.
  46. ^ Eric Heinze, The Concept of Injustice (Routledge, 2013).
  47. ^ Gibbons, Fiachra (7 September 2001). "The thinking person's favourite thinkers". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  48. ^ Ha, Thu-Huong (27 January 2016). "These are the books students at the top US colleges are required to read". Quartz. Archived from the original on 28 May 2021.
  49. ^ Jackson, Abby (5 February 2016). "The most popular required reading at America's top 10 colleges". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021.
  50. ^ Sharpe, Matthew (16 December 2019). "Guide to the classics: Plato's Republic". The Conversation.
  51. ^ Brandwood, Leonard, The Chronology of Plato's Dialogues (Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 251.
  52. ^ Brandwood (1990), p. 251
  53. ^ Grenfall, Bernard Pyne; Hunt, Arthur Surridge (1898). "The Oxyrhynchus papyri". p. 187. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  54. ^ Mountain Man Graphics. "Plato's Republic at Nag Hammadi c.350 CE".

Further readingEdit

  • Annas, Julia (1981). An Introduction to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Benardete, Seth (1989). Socrates' Second Sailing: On Plato's Republic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Blackburn, Simon (2007). Plato's Republic: A Biography. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
  • Bosanquet, B. (1895). A Companion to Plato's Republic. London: Rivington, Percival & Co.
  • Cairns, Douglas, ed. (2007). Pursuing the good. University of Edinburgh Press.
  • Craig, Leon (1994). The War Lover: A Study of Plato's Republic. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802005861.
  • Cross, R.C. (1964). Plato's Republic: A Philosophical Commentary. London: Macmillan.
  • Dixsaut, Monique (2005). études sur la république de platon. france: vrin.
  • Ferrari, G.R.F., ed. (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Howland, Jacob (1993). The Republic: The Odyssey of Philosophy. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books.
  • Hyland, Drew (1995). Finitude and transcendence in the Platonic dialogues.
  • Kraut, Richard, ed. (1997). Plato's Republic: Critical Essays. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • LeMoine, Rebecca (2020). Plato's Caves: The Liberating Sting of Cultural Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Levinson, Ronald (1953). In Defense of Plato. Cambridge: Harvard.
  • Lisi, Francisco, ed. (2007). The Ascent to the Good. London: Academia Verlag.
  • Mayhew, Robert (1997). Aristotle's Criticism of Plato's Republic. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • McNeill, David (2010). An Image of the Soul in Speech. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Mitchell, Basil; Lucas, J.R. (2003). An Engagement with Plato's Republic: A Companion to Plato's Republic. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Murphy, N.R. (1951). The Interpretation of Plato's Republic. Oxford: Oxford U.P.
  • Nettleship, Richard. (1898). Lectures on The Republic of Plato. London.
  • Nettleship, Richard. (1935). The Theory of Education in Plato's Republic. London: Oxford.
  • Ophir, Adi (1991). Plato's Invisible Cities. London: Routledge.
  • Pappas, Nikolas (1995). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Plato and the Republic. London: Routledge.
  • Piechowiak, Marek (2021). Plato's Conception of Justice and the Question of Human Dignity. Berlin: Peter Lang.
  • Purshouse, Luke (2007). Plato's Republic. London: Continuum.
  • Reeve, C.D.C. (1988). Philosopher-Kings: The Argument of Plato's Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rice, Daryl H. (1998). A Guide to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Roochnik, David (2003). Beautiful City. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Rosen, Stanley (2005). Plato's Republic: A Study. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Santas, Gerasimos, ed. (2006). The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Santas, Gerasimos, ed. (2010). understanding Plato's Republic. Oxford: wiley-Blackwell.
  • Sayers, Sean (1999). Plato's Republic: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Sesonske, Alexander, ed. (1966). Plato's Republic: Interpretation and Criticism. Belmont: Wadsworth.
  • Sinaiko, Herman (1998). Reclaiming the Canon. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300065299.
  • Strauss, Leo (1964). The City and Man. Chicago: Rand McNally.
  • White, Nicholas P. (1979). A Companion to Plato's Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett.
  • Wild, John (1946). Plato's Theory of Man. Cambridge: Harvard.
  • Wild, John (1953). Plato's Modern Enemies and the Theory of Natural Law. Chicago: University of Chicago.

External linksEdit