Pinus kesiya

Pinus kesiya (Khasi pine, Benguet pine or three-needled pine) is one of the most widely distributed pines in Asia. Its range extends south and east from the Khasi Hills in the northeast Indian state of Meghalaya, to northern Thailand, Philippines, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, southernmost China, and Vietnam. It is an important plantation species elsewhere in the world, including in southern Africa and South America.[2][3]

Pinus kesiya
Pinus kesiya Blanco2.453.jpg
Pinus kesiya Binga.jpg
Khasi pine in Benguet, Philippines
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Gymnosperms
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: P. subg. Pinus
Section: P. sect. Pinus
Subsection: P. subsect. Pinus
P. kesiya
Binomial name
Pinus kesiya

The common name "Khasi pine" is from the Khasi hills in India, and "Benguet pine" is from the landlocked province of Benguet in Luzon, Philippines, where it is the dominant species of the Luzon tropical pine forests. The Benguet pine is sometimes treated as a separate species, Pinus insularis; however, the current opinion is to treat these as conspecific with P. kesiya. The city of Baguio is nicknamed "The City of Pines", as it is noted for large stands of this tree.


Bark of Benguet pine

Pinus kesiya is a tree reaching up to 30–35 metres (98–115 feet) tall with a straight, cylindrical trunk. The bark is thick and dark brown, with deep longitudinal fissures. The branches are robust, red brown from the second year, the branchlets horizontal to drooping. The leaves are needle-like, dark green, usually 3 per fascicle, 15–20 centimetres (6–8 inches) long, the fascicle sheath 1–2 cm (1234 in) long and persistent. The cones are ovoid, 5–9 cm (2–3+12 in) long, often curved downwards, sometimes slightly distorted; the scales of second-year cones are dense, the umbo a little convex, sometimes acutely spinous. The scales have transverse and longitudinal ridges across the middle of the scale surface. The seeds are winged, 6–7 millimetres (14932 in) long with a 1.5–2.5 cm wing. Pollination occurs in mid-spring, with the cones maturing 18–20 months after.[citation needed]

Khasi pine usually grows in pure stands or mixed with broad-leaved trees, but does not form open pine forests.[citation needed]


The soft and light timber of Pinus kesiya can be used for a wide range of applications, including boxes, paper pulp, and temporary electric poles. It is intensely used for timber, both sourced in natural forests and plantations.[2][3]

The good-quality resin is not abundant and has not been much used except during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines for the production of turpentine.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus kesiya". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42372A2975925. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42372A2975925.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Luu, Nguyen Duc To; Philip Ian Thomas (2004). Conifers of Vietnam. pp. 42–43. ISBN 1-872291-64-3. Archived from the original on 2007-05-19.
  3. ^ a b "Pinus kesiya". AgroForestryTree Database. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry. Retrieved 17 April 2012.

External linksEdit