Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide

The pheromone biosynthesis activation neuropeptide (PBAN) is a neurohormone (member of the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family) that activates the biosynthesis of pheromones in moths. Female moths release PBAN into their hemolymph during the scotophase to stimulate the biosynthesis of the unique pheromone that will attract the conspecific males. PBAN release is drastically reduced after mating, contributing to the loss in female receptivity.[1] In Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm), it has been shown that the Juvenile Hormone helps induce release of PBAN which goes on to influence pheromone production and responsiveness in females and males, respectively.[2] In the Helicoverpa assulta, the circadian rhythm of pheromone production is closely associated with PBAN release.[3]

Molecular mechanism of actionEdit

The precise regulatory mechanisms exerted by PBAN on the different steps of pheromone biosynthesis remain to be determined. However, the receptor of this neuropeptide has been already cloned.[4] The receptor belongs to the G-protein coupled receptors, and its activation leads to an increase of intracellular Calcium levels. According to the effects of gene disruption in the pheromone synthesis of Bombykol (the main pheromone component of the silk moth Bombyx mori and the corn earworm moth), the increase in intracellular calcium levels turns to activate different key enzymes of the last steps of pheromone biosynthesis.[5][6]


  1. ^ Rafaeli, Ada (2009). "Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN): Regulatory role and mode of action". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 162 (1): 69–78. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.04.004. PMID 18495120.
  2. ^ Duportets, Line, et al. “The Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) of the Black Cutworm Moth, Agrotis Ipsilon: Immunohistochemistry, Molecular Characterization and Bioassay of Its Peptide Sequence.” Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 28, no. 8, 1998, pp. 591–599., doi:10.1016/s0965-1748(98)00033-2.
  3. ^ Yeon Choi, Man; Tanaka, Minoru; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Saeng Boo, Kyung; Tatsuki, Sadahiro (1998-10-01). "Isolation and identification of the cDNA encoding the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and additional neuropeptides in the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)1The cDNA sequence of this paper has been deposited in the GenBank data base (Accession No. U96761).1". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 28 (10): 759–766. doi:10.1016/S0965-1748(98)00065-4. PMID 9807222.
  4. ^ Matsumoto, Shogo; Hull, J. Joe; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Moto, Ken’ichi; Fónagy, Adrien (2007). "Molecular mechanisms underlying sex pheromone production in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori: Characterization of the molecular components involved in bombykol biosynthesis". Journal of Insect Physiology. 53 (8): 752–9. doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2007.02.014. PMID 17448494.
  5. ^ Ohnishi, Atsushi; Hull, J. Joe; Matsumoto, Shogo (2006). "Targeted disruption of genes in the Bombyx mori sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (12): 4398–403. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511270103. PMC 1450183. PMID 16537410.
  6. ^ Choi, Man-Yeon, et al. "Identification of a G protein-coupled receptor for pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from pheromone glands of the moth Helicoverpa zea." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100.17 (2003): 9721-9726.