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Perseverative cognition[1][2] is a collective term in scientific psychology for continuous thinking about negative events[3] in the past or in the future (e.g. worry, rumination and brooding, but also mind wandering about negative topics[4][5]). Perseverative cognition has been shown to have physiological effects, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure and cortisol, in daily life as well as under controlled laboratory conditions.[6][7] Because of these physiological effects, the psychological concept of perseverative cognition helps to explain how psychological stress, such as work stress and marital stress, leads to disease, such as cardiovascular disease (see below: the 'perseverative cognition hypothesis').


The definition of perseverative cognition is: "the repeated or chronic activation of the cognitive representation of one or more psychological stressors".[2][8] Worry, rumination and all other forms of thought (cognition) involving stressful events, in the past or in the future, fall under the definition of perseverative cognition. 'Just thinking about your problems, without calling it worrying or rumination', is also perseverative cognition, as is mind wandering when it concerns negative topics.[4][5] Importantly, there is a large body of knowledge about the typical constituents of perseverative cognition, such as worry, rumination, repetitive thinking and (negative) mind wandering (reviewed in Watkins, 2008[3]). Perseverative cognition may partly be unconscious.[9][10] Just as people are not aware of the larger part of their thoughts (cognition),[11][12] they may also not be aware of the cognitive representation of stressors.

The 'perseverative cognition hypothesis'[2] holds that stressful events cannot affect people's health, unless they think repetitively or continuously (that is, 'perseverate cognitively') about these stressful events. Stressful events themselves are often too short, as are the physiological responses to them. Therefore the physiological responses during these stressors are unlikely to cause bodily harm. More importantly, many stressful events are merely worried about, or feared in the future, while they often do not happen or do not have the feared consequences. Nevertheless, the body reacts with prolonged physiological responses to continuous thoughts (perseverative cognition) about these stressors. Therefore it is the perseverative cognition, and not the stressors that can eventually lead to disease. In scientific terms, it is said that perseverative cognition is a mediator of the detrimental effects of stress on one's health. Since its publication scientific evidence for this hypothesis has been accumulating.[8][13][14][15]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Brosschot, J.F.; Pieper, S.; Thayer, J.F. (2005). "Expanding Stress Theory: Prolonged Activation And Perseverative Cognition". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 30 (10): 1043–9. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.04.008. PMID 15939546.
  2. ^ a b c Brosschot, J.F; Gerin, W.; Thayer, J.F. (2006). "Worry and health: the perseverative cognition hypothesis". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 60 (2): 113–12. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074. PMID 16439263.
  3. ^ a b Watkins, E. R. (2008). "Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought". Psychological Bulletin. 134 (2): 163–206. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.2.163. PMC 2672052.
  4. ^ a b Ottaviani, C.; Shapiro, D.; Couyoumdjian, A. (2013). "Flexibility as the key for somatic health: From mind wandering to perseverative cognition". Biological Psychology. 94 (1): 38–43. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.05.003.
  5. ^ a b Ottaviani, C; Couyoumdjian, A (2013). "Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study". Frontiers in Psychology. 4. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00524.
  6. ^ Zoccola, P.M.; Dickerson, S.D.; Yim, I. S. (2011). "Trait and state perseverative cognition and the cortisol awakening response". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 36 (4): 592–595. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.10.004. PMID 21050668.
  7. ^ Ottaviani, C.; Lonigro, A.; Medea, B.; Couyoumdjian, A.; Thayer, J.F.; Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F. (2015). "Physiological Concomitants of Perseverative Cognition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 142 (3): 231–259. doi:10.1037/bul0000036. PMID 26689087.
  8. ^ a b Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Thayer, J.F. (2010). "When worries make you sick: A review of perseverative cognition, the default stress response and somatic health". Journal of Experimental Psychopathology. 1: 87–118. doi:10.5127/jep.009110.
  9. ^ Brosschot, J.F. (2010). "Markers of chronic stress: Prolonged physiological activation and (un)conscious perseverative cognition". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 35 (1): 46–50. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.01.004.
  10. ^ Brosschot, J.F.; Verkuil, B.; Thayer, J.F. (2010). "Conscious and unconscious perseverative cognition: Is a large part of prolonged physiological activity due to unconscious stress?". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 69 (4): 407–16. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.02.002.
  11. ^ Bargh, J.A.; Morsella, E. (2008). "The unconscious mind". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 3 (1): 73–9. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00064.x. PMC 2440575. PMID 18584056.
  12. ^ Dijksterhuis, A.; Nordgren, L.F. (2006). "A theory of unconscious thought". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 1 (2): 95–109. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00007.x. PMID 26151465.
  13. ^ Geurts, S.A.; Sonnentag, S. (2006). "Recovery as an explanatory mechanism in the relation between acute stress reactions and chronic health impairment". Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environtal Health. 32 (6): 482–92. doi:10.5271/sjweh.1053.
  14. ^ Larsen, B.A; Christenfeld, N.J.S. (2009). "Cardiovascular Disease and Psychiatric Comorbidity: The Potential Role of Perseverative Cognition". Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology. 2009: 1–8. doi:10.1155/2009/791017. PMC 2790803. PMID 20029626.
  15. ^ Flaxman, P. E.; Ménard, J.; Bond, F. W.; Kinman, G. (2012). "Academics' experiences of a respite from work: Effects of self-critical perfectionism and perseverative cognition on postrespite well-being". Journal of Applied Psychology. 97 (4): 854–865. doi:10.1037/a0028055. PMID 22545621.