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Pelagius (fl.c. AD 390 – 418) was a theologian of British origin who advocated free will and asceticism. He was accused by Augustine of Hippo and others of denying the need for divine aid in performing good works. They understood him to have said that the only grace necessary was the declaration of the law; humans were not wounded by Adam's sin and were perfectly able to fulfill the law without divine aid. Pelagius denied Augustine's theory of original sin. His adherents cited Deuteronomy 24:16 in support of their position. Pelagius was declared a heretic by the Council of Carthage (418). His interpretation of a doctrine of free will became known as Pelagianism.
He was well educated, fluent in both Greek and Latin, and learned in theology. He spent time as an ascetic, focusing on practical asceticism. He was well known in Rome, both for the harsh asceticism of his public life and the power and persuasiveness of his speech. His reputation earned him praise early in his career even from such pillars of the Church as Augustine, who referred to him as a "saintly man". However, he was later accused of lying about his own teachings to avoid public condemnation. Most of his later life was spent defending his doctrine against Christian theologians who held that Pelagius was spreading novelties in the Faith unknown to the apostolic tradition.
Due to some calling him a heretic, little of his work has come down to the present day except in the quotes of his opponents. However, more recently, some non-Orthodox Christian authors have defended Pelagius as a misunderstood “orthodox”:
Recent analysis of his thinking suggests that it was, in fact, highly orthodox, following in the tradition established by the early fathers and in keeping with the teaching of the church in both the East and the West. ... From what we are able to piece together from the few sources available... it seems that the Celtic monk held to an orthodox view of the prevenience of God's grace, and did not assert that individuals could achieve salvation purely by their own efforts...
- 1 Beginnings
- 2 Opponents
- 3 Pelagius and the doctrine of free will
- 4 Pelagius on grace
- 5 Pope Innocent I
- 6 Pope Zosimus
- 7 Death and later
- 8 Evaluation
- 9 Pelagius in literature and film
- 10 Writings
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Pelagius was born about 354-360. He is said by his contemporaries, such as Augustine of Hippo, Prosper of Aquitaine, Marius Mercator, and Paul Orosius, to have been of British origin. Jerome apparently thought that Pelagius was Irish, suggesting that he was "stuffed with Irish porridge" (Scotorum pultibus praegravatus). He was tall in stature and portly in appearance. Pelagius was also highly educated, he spoke and wrote Latin and Greek with great fluency and was well versed in theology. His name has traditionally been understood as a Graecized form (from pélagos, "sea") of the Welsh name Morgan ("sea-born"), or another Celtic equivalent.
Pelagius became better known around 380 when he moved to Rome. There he enjoyed a reputation of austerity; he also corresponded with St. Paulinus of Nola. Pelagius became concerned about the moral laxity of society. He blamed this laxity on the theology of divine grace preached by Augustine, among others. He began to teach a very strict, rigid moralism, emphasizing a natural, innate human ability to attain salvation.
Augustine of HippoEdit
Pelagianism quickly spread, especially around Carthage. Augustine wrote "De peccatorum meritis et remissione libri III" (Three Books on the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins) in 412, and "De spiritu et littera" (On the Spirit and the Letter) in 414. When in 414 disquieting rumours arrived from Sicily and the so-called "Definitiones Caelestii", said to be the work of Caelestius, were sent to him, he at once (414 or 415) published the rejoinder, "De perfectione justitiae hominis". In these, he strongly affirmed the existence of original sin, the need for infant baptism, the impossibility of a sinless life without Christ, and the necessity of Christ's grace. Augustine stands as an important source on the life and theology of Pelagius, and wrote about him extensively.
Pelagius soon left for Palestine, befriending the bishop there. Jerome, who also lived there, became involved, as well. Pelagius had criticized his commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians. Jerome wrote against Pelagius in his "Letter to Ctesiphon" and "Dialogus contra Pelagianos." With Jerome at the time was Orosius, a visiting pupil of Augustine, with similar views on the dangers of Pelagianism. Together, they publicly condemned Pelagius. Bishop John of Jerusalem, a personal friend of Pelagius, called a council in July 415. Church sources claim Orosius' lack of fluency in Greek rendered him unconvincing and John's Eastern background made him more willing to accept that humans did not have inherent sinfulness, yet the council rendered no verdict and passed the controversy to the Latin Church because Pelagius, Jerome, and Orosius were all Latin.
A few months later in December of 415, another synod in Diospolis (Lydda) under the bishop of Cæsarea was called by two deposed bishops who came to the Holy Land. However, neither bishop attended for unrelated reasons and Orosius had left after consultation with Bishop John. Pelagius explained to the synod that he did believe God was necessary for salvation because every human is created by God. He also claimed that many works of Celestius did not represent his own views. He showed letters of recommendation by other authoritative figures including Augustine himself, who for all their disagreements, thought highly of Pelagius' character.
The Synod of Diospolis therefore concluded: "Now since we have received satisfaction in respect of the charges brought against the monk Pelagius in his presence and since he gives his assent to sound doctrines but condemns and anathematises those contrary to the faith of the Church, we adjudge him to belong to the communion of the Catholic Church."
Pelagius and the doctrine of free willEdit
After his acquittal in Diospolis, Pelagius wrote two major treatises which are no longer extant, On Nature and Defense of the Freedom of the Will. In these, he defends his position on sin and sinlessness, and accuses Augustine of being under the influence of Manichaeism by elevating evil to the same status as God and teaching pagan fatalism as if it were a Christian doctrine.
Manichaeism stressed that the spirit was God-created, while material substance was corrupt and evil. Theologian Gerald Bonner felt that part of Pelagius' analysis was an over-reaction to Manicheanism. Pelagius held that everything created by God was good, therefore, he could not see how God had made humans fallen creatures. (Augustine's teachings on the Fall of Adam was not a settled doctrine at the time the Augustinian/Pelagian dispute began.)
The view that mankind can avoid sinning, and that humans can freely choose to obey God's commandments, stands at the core of Pelagian teaching. Pelagius stressed human autonomy and freedom of the will.
An illustration of Pelagius' views on man's "moral ability" not to sin can be found in his "Letter to Demetrias". He was in the Holy Land when, in 413, he received a letter from the renowned Anician family in Rome. One of the aristocratic ladies who had been among his followers, Anicia Juliana, was writing to a number of eminent Western theologians, including Jerome and possibly Augustine, for moral advice for her 14-year-old daughter, Demetrias. Pelagius used the letter to argue his case for morality, stressing his views of natural sanctity and man's moral capacity to choose to live a holy life. It is perhaps the only extant writing in Pelagius' own hand, and it was thought to be a letter by Jerome for centuries, though Augustine himself references it in his work, On the Grace of Christ.
Pelagius on graceEdit
For Pelagius, "grace" consisted of the gift of free will, the Law of Moses, and the teachings of Jesus. With these, a person would be able to perceive the moral course of action and follow it. Prayer, fasting, and asceticism supported the will to do good. Augustine accused Pelagius of thinking of God's grace as consisting only of external helps.
Extant letters of Pelagius and his followers claim that all good works are done only with the grace of God (which he saw as enabling, but not forcing, good works), that infants must be baptized for salvation, and that the saints were not always sinless, but that some at least have been able to stop sinning.
He instead said, "This grace we for our part do not, as you suppose, allow to consist merely in the law, but also in the help of God. God helps us by His teaching and revelation, whilst He opens the eyes of our heart; whilst He points out to us the future, that we may not be absorbed in the present; whilst He discovers to us the snares of the devil; whilst He enlightens us with the manifold and ineffable gift of heavenly grace." In a letter to the Pope defending himself, he stated, "This free will is in all good works always assisted by divine help", and in an accompanying confession of faith, "Free-will we do so own, as to say that we always stand in need of God's help", However, he affirmed that "We do also abhor the blasphemy of those who say that any impossible thing is commanded to man by God; or that the commandments of God cannot be performed by any one man" (a statement which the pope approved of upon receiving the letter), whereas Augustine famously stated "non possum non peccare" ("I cannot not sin").
Pope Innocent IEdit
In the fall of 416, Augustine and four other bishops wrote a letter urging Pope Innocent I to condemn Pelagianism. Innocent I responded by rejecting the Pelagian teachings and excluding Pelagius and Celestius from communion with the Catholic Church until they should recant. Shortly after this, Innocent I died in March of 417.
Seeking to undo his condemnation, Pelagius wrote a letter and statement of belief to Pope Zosimus, Innocent I's successor, showing himself to be orthodox. In these he articulated his beliefs so as not to contradict what the synods condemned. Zosimus was persuaded by Celestius to reopen the case, but opposition from the African bishops and Emperor Honorius forced Zosimus to condemn and excommunicate Celestius and Pelagius in 418.
Pelagianism was condemned at the Council of Carthage in 418. Augustine, shocked that Pelagius and Celestius were not denounced as heretics, called the Council of Carthage in 418 and stated nine beliefs of the Church that Pelagianism denied:
- Death came from sin, not man's physical nature.
- Infants must be baptized to be cleansed from original sin.
- Justifying grace covers past sins and helps avoid future sins.
- The grace of Christ imparts strength and will to act out God's commandments.
- No good works can come without God's grace.
- We confess we are sinners because it is true, not from humility.
- The saints ask for forgiveness for their own sins.
- The saints also confess to be sinners because they are.
- Children dying without baptism are excluded from both the kingdom of heaven and eternal life.
Death and laterEdit
His death did not end his teachings, although those who followed him may have modified those teachings. Because little information remains with regard to Pelagius' actual teachings, some of his doctrines possibly were subject to revision and suppression by his enemies (followers of Augustine and the Church leadership as a whole at that time).
Belief in Pelagianism and Semipelagianism was common for the next few centuries, especially in Britain, the Holy Land, and North Africa. St Germanus visited Britain to combat Pelagianism in or around AD 429. In Wales, Saint David was credited with convening the Synod of Brefi and the Synod of Victory against the followers of Pelagius in the sixth century.
An objective view of Pelagius and his effect is difficult. His name has been used as an epithet for centuries by both Protestants and Catholics, and he has had few defenders. The very early church denounced his ideas and the Reformation accused Roman Catholics of adhering to his beliefs and condemned both Pelagius and the Catholic Church. Modern scholarship suggests that Pelagius did not take the more extreme positions later associated with his followers. Ronald Hutton describes him as "a first-rate theologian".
Pelagius in literature and filmEdit
In Hilaire Belloc's The Four Men, the Sailor leads his companions in the "Song of the Pelagian Heresy for the Strengthening of Men's Backs and the very Robust Out-thrusting of Doubtful Doctrine and the Uncertain Intellectual".
Paul Morgan's novella, The Pelagius Book (2005), deals with the relationship of Pelagius, and Celestius, who in the story, is sent to spread Pelagius' teachings in Britain.
In M J Trow and Richard Denham's 'Britannia' series, Pelagius is a character who has a huge moral impact on one of the four central characters, Vitalis, and his take on Christianity resonates throughout the rest of the series.
Pelagius is frequently referred to in Jack Whyte's series of books known as A Dream of Eagles, where a major character's belief in Pelagius' ideas of free will and the laxity of the Roman Catholic Church eventually cause him to come into conflict with Church representatives.
John Cowper Powys' novel Porius (A Romance of the Dark Ages) (1951) features the conflict between Augustinian/Pelagian beliefs, with the eponymous hero being a follower of Pelagius. Powys referred approvingly to Pelagianism in his nonfiction book Obstinate Cymric (1947).
The government of the English-speaking Union (Enspun) in Anthony Burgess' The Wanting Seed is locked in a perpetual cycle, rotating between the 'Pel-Phase', named after Pelagius, and an Augustinian phase. The former is one of police and social services; the latter is characterized by martial law. Burgess took up the Augustine/Pelagius theme again in The Clockwork Testament and in Earthly Powers.
In the movie King Arthur (2004), Pelagius is a former mentor of young Lucius Artorius Castus (Arthur) played by Clive Owen. Arthur champions Pelagius' ideals, particularly those regarding free will. Upon learning of Pelagius's excommunication and death, Arthur realizes that the Roman ideal that he supported no longer exists. He breaks ties with the Roman Empire, and leads the Britons against the Saxon invaders.
Pelagius is the subject of a poem by the Glasgow poet Edwin Morgan ("Cathures", Carcanet 2002) which imagines that Pelagius has returned to his native Glasgow (Cathures) and that his Celtic name was Morgan.
Stephen Baxter, in his novel Emperor, imagines how time's tapestry would have looked had Pelagius' views and not Augustine's influenced the evolution of Christianity. He also portrays the Emperor Constantine's actions as having dealt a harsh blow, but not necessarily a mortal one, to Pelagius' teaching that humans are free and sin is not inherent in us.
A facsimile of the 1808 "A Dissertation of the Pelagian Heresy and the Refutation of it al Llandewi Brevi by St David" has been printed in Carmarthen on the same street as the original.
Heresy: the Life of Pelagius (2012) by David Lovejoy, portrays Pelagius through the eyes of his (fictional) servant Arwel.
In his Sister Fidelma mystery series (1994–present), author Peter Berresford Ellis, under the pen name Peter Tremayne, uses the teachings of Pelagius to contrast the dogma and practices of the contemporary Celtic church and that of Rome for supremacy in the British Isles.
Pelagius wrote: De fide Trinitatis libri Ⅲ ("On Faith in the Trinity: Three Books"), Eclogarum ex divinis Scripturis liber primus ("Excerpts out of Divine Scriptures: Book One"), and Commentarii in epistolas S. Pauli ("Commentary on the Epistles of Saint Paul"). Unfortunately, most of his work survives only in the quotations of his opponents. Only in the past century have works attributable to Pelagius been identified as such.
- Letters of Pelagius: To a Presbyter, Augustine of Hippo, and Pope Innocent I
- On Nature
- Defense of the Freedom of the Will
- Pelagius's Commentary on St Paul's Epistle to the Romans
- Pelagius's Expositions of the Thirteen Epistles of St. Paul
- Excerpts Out of Divine Scriptures: One Book (a.k.a. Chapters)
- Confession of Faith
- Written Anathema
- Bonner, Gerald (2004). "Pelagius (fl. c.390–418), theologian". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21784. Retrieved 28 October 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Bradley, Ian (1993) The Celtic Way. London: Darton, Longman and Todd; p. 62
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Daibhi O Croinin, Early Medieval Ireland 400-1200 (2013), p. 206.
- Dods, Marcus (1911). "Pelagius". The Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 21. Cambridge University Press.
- Fletcher, Richard (1989). Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England. Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-85683-089-5.
- Pohle, Joseph. "Pelagius and Pelagianism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 18 Jan. 2014
- Filippo, Stephen N. "St. Augustine and Pelagianism". Ignatius Insight
- Jennings, Daniel R., "Pelagius: Transcript From The Council of Diospolis (Lydda) Against Pelagius, 415AD
- Bonner, Gerald. St. Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies, Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, 1963
- "Letter of Pelagius to Demetrias", The Letters of Pelagius (Robert Van de Weyer, ed.)
- Stephen J. Duffy, Stephen J., The Dynamics of Grace: Perspectives in Theological Anthropology, Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1993
- Schaff, Philip. The Seven Ecumenical Councils: Excursus on Pelagianism, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, series II, vol 14.
- Clark, R. Scott. "Pelagianism", Wheaton College, spring 1997
- Hutton, Ronald (2013). Pagan Britain. New Haven, US: Yale University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-300-19771-6.
- Pierce, Peter. Review of The Pelagius Book, "The Age", June 11, 2005. Melbourne: Fairfax Digital
- Lawhead, Stephen R (2000). The black rood. New York: EOS. ISBN 9780061050343. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Lawhead, Stephen R (2004). Patrick : Son of Ireland. New York: HarperTorch. ISBN 9780060012823. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- "King Arthur"
- Heresy: the Life of Pelagius by David Lovejoy, Echo Publications
- Pelagius's Commentary on St Paul's Epistle to the Romans (translated with introduction and notes by Theodore de Bruyn), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993 ISBN 0-19-814399-0
- "Pelagius's Expositions of the Thirteen Epistles of St. Paul" (edited by A. Souter) Texts and Studies; 9, 3 vols. in 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922–1931 1: Introduction 2: Text – 3: Pseudo-Jerome interpolations
- Georges de Plinval, Pélage, ses écrits, sa vie et sa réforme, etude d' histoire littéraire et religieuse, Payot, Lausanne, 1943,
- Brinley Rees, Pelagius A Reluctant Heretic, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1988.
- Brinley Rees (ed.), Pelagius: Life and Letters, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge:1989, 1991. ISBN 0-85115-282-1 Translation of 18 letters, including Epistle to Demetrias, and minor treatises attributed at various times to Pelagius or his followers.ISBN 0-85115-714-9
- Robert Van de Weyer (ed.), The Letters of Pelagius: Celtic Soul Friend, Little Gidding books, Evesham: Arthur James, 1995.
- Pelagius, Epistula ad Demetriadem. Brief an Demetrias, Einleitung, Edition und Übersetzung von Gisbert Greshake, [Fontes Christiani], Band 65, Herder, Freiburg, 2015
- Squires, Stuart. The Pelagian Controversy: An Introduction to the Enemies of Grace and the Conspiracy of Lost Souls. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2019.
- Media related to Pelagius at Wikimedia Commons
- Works written by or about Pelagius at Wikisource
- Quotations related to Pelagius at Wikiquote
- Canons From The Council Of Carthage Against Pelagianism, May 1, 418
- Deacon Geoffrey Ó Riada. Pelagius: To Demetrias. An analysis of the letter and a brief biography.[dead link]
- Latin and English versions of a short section of the letter to Demetrias.
- The Pelagian Controversy on In Our Time at the BBC