Green chromide

  (Redirected from Pearlspot)

The green chromide (Etroplus suratensis) is a species of Cichlid fish from freshwater and brackish water in southern India and Sri Lanka.[2] Other common names include pearlspot cichlid,[1] banded pearlspot, and striped chromide.[3] In Kerala in India it is known locally as the Karimeen.[4] In Goa the fish is known as Kalundar [5] In Sri Lanka this fish is known as Koraliya

Green chromide
Etroplus suratensis.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cichliformes
Family: Cichlidae
Genus: Etroplus
E. suratensis
Binomial name
Etroplus suratensis
(Bloch, 1790)

This fish is native to Sri Lanka and coastal regions of India.[1] Many species have been introduced in various parts of the world,[1] including Singapore, where it occurs in estuaries.[6]

The adult is oval in shape with a short snout. It is gray-green in color with dark barring and a dark spot at the base of the pectoral fin.[1] It commonly reaches 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length, and the maximum length is twice that.[2]

This species lives in brackish water habitat types, such as river deltas. It eats mainly aquatic plants, but it consumes the occasional mollusk, diatoms, and other animal matter. This species engages in attentive parental care in which several adults care for each brood.[1]

In Sri Lanka local name for this fish is Koraliya (කොරළියා). In 2010 this species was named the official state fish of Kerala. The following year was declared "The Year of the Karimeen". Karimeen Pollichatthu, a fried dish, is a delicacy served in restaurants. It is familiar to tourists, but because it is very expensive it is not easily accessible to poor folks. Production of the species for food is expected to increase in the near future.[4]

They are closely related to the Paretroplus fishes from Madagascar.[7]Etroplus suratensis and E. maculatus form the main species and the former is dominant among Pearl spots in reservoirs of India. They mainly feed on detritus and occupy the same niche as that of Oreochromis mossambicus. These fishes are very popular food fishes but their biomass is very low in reservoirs compared to other cichlids.[8]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Abraham, R. (2011). "Etroplus suratensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T172368A6877592. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T172368A6877592.en.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Etroplus suratensis" in FishBase. July 2011 version.
  3. ^ Common names of Etroplus suratensis. FishBase. 2015.
  4. ^ a b Basheer, K.P.M. (9 July 2010). "Karimeen leaps from frying pan to State fish". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  5. ^ "Good Goan Food: Local (Konkani) names for Common Fish in Goa". 2011-11-25.
  6. ^ Green Chromide. Guide to Common Marine Fishes of Singapore.
  7. ^ Sparks, John S. (2004). "Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Malagasy and South Asian cichlids (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 599–614. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00225-2. PMID 15012941.
  8. ^ Feroz Khan, M.; Panikkar, Preetha (2009). "Assessment of impacts of invasive fishes on the food web structure and ecosystem properties of a tropical reservoir in India". Ecological Modelling. 220 (18): 2281–2290. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.05.020.

External linksEdit

  • Pearl-spot. Fresh water fishes of Karnataka. ENVIS Centre.

For scientific information see Etroplus suratensis in Wikispecies