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In the United States, a patroon (English: //; from Dutch patroon) was a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland on the east coast of North America. Through the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 1629, the Dutch West India Company first started to grant this title and land to some of its invested members. These inducements to foster colonization and settlement (also known as the "Rights and Exemptions") are the basis for the patroon system. In 1775, at the outbreak of the American Revolution, primogeniture and feudal tenure were abolished and thus patroons and manors evolved into simply large estates subject to division and leases.
The deeded tracts were called patroonships and could span 16 miles in length on one side of a major river, or 8 miles if spanning both sides. In 1640, the charter was revised to cut new plot sizes in half, and to allow any Dutch American in good standing to purchase an estate. The title of patroon came with powerful rights and privileges. A patroon could create civil and criminal courts, appoint local officials and hold land in perpetuity. In return, he was required by the Dutch West India Company to – sources vary – establish a settlement of at least 50 families within four years on the land, or "ship fifty colonists to it within four year". As tenants working for the patroon, these first settlers were relieved of the duty of public taxes for ten years, but were required to pay rent to the patroon. A patroonship sometimes had its own village and other infrastructure, including churches.
After the English takeover of New Netherland in 1664, the system continued with the granting of large tracts known as manors, and sometimes referred to as patroonships.
The largest and most successful patroonship in New Netherland was the Manor of Rensselaerswijck, established by Kiliaen van Rensselaer. Rensselaerswijck covered almost all of present-day Albany and Rensselaer counties and parts of present-day Columbia and Greene counties in New York State.
- Zwaanendael (Delaware Bay) – Samuel Blommaert and Samuel Godyn, abandoned after being devastated by indigenous population.
- Pavonia (Hudson County) – Michael Reyniersz Pauw, re-sold to the West India Company becoming a company-managed holding.
- Staaten Eylandt (Staten Island) – Cornelis Melyn, mired in conflict with Raritan tribe and company politics.
- Achter Col (Hackensack River), aborted at the outset of Kieft's War.
Other large private land patentsEdit
English manorial grantsEdit
- Fordham Manor 3900 acres in the Bronx owned by John Archer. Granted in 1671 this was the 1st Manor granted under English rule.
- Bentley Manor – Christopher Billopp.
- Cassilton Manor – John Palmer
- Livingston Manor (Dutchess and Columbia counties) – Robert Livingston the Elder 160,000 acres (650 km²)
- Lloyd's Neck Manor – James Lloyd
- Pelham Manor – David Pelham 
Notable English non-manorial grantsEdit
The word patroonship was used until the year 1775, when the English redefined the lands as estates and took away the jurisdictional privilege. Ethnic Dutch, who were still a substantial part of the population, resented the change and moved mostly toward the cause of the Independence movement. After the war, the newly recognized New York State government refused to overturn the law.
Rensselaerswijck was dismantled in the early 19th century after its last sole proprietor died. Two sons split the property and, after tenant farmers gained the right to refuse to pay rent, the sons sold off much of the property. The land was organized as different counties and towns in New York's Capital District.
In popular mediaEdit
- "Conditions as Created by their Lords Burgomasters of Amsterdam". World Digital Library. 1656. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/_Topics/history/_Texts/FISDQC/4*.html Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology
- S.L. Mershon, English Crown Grants, NEW YORK: THE LAW AND HISTORY CLUB, 1918
- Burrows, Edwin G.; Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 92, ISBN 978-0-19-514049-1