Paternoster Row was a street in the City of London that was a centre of the London publishing trade, with booksellers operating from the street. Paternoster Row was described as "almost synonymous" with the book trade. It was part of an area also called St. Paul's Churchyard.
The street was devastated by aerial bombardment during the World War II. In 2003, the street was replaced with Paternoster Square, the modern home of the London Stock Exchange, although a City of London Corporation road sign remains in the square near where Paternoster Row once stood.
The street is supposed to have received its name from the fact that, when the monks and clergy of St Paul's Cathedral would go in procession chanting the great litany, they would recite the Lord's Prayer (Pater Noster being its opening line in Latin) in the litany along this part of the route). The prayers said at these processions may have also given the names to nearby Ave Maria Lane and Amen Corner.
An alternative etymology is the early traders, who sold a type of prayer been known as a "pater noster".
The name of the street dates back to the 16th-century the least.
Houses in St. Paul's Churchyard were damaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666, burning down the old St. Paul's Cathedral. When the new St. Paul's Cathedral was erected, booksellers returned after a number of years.
It was reported that Charlotte Brontë and Ann Brontë stayed at the Chapter Coffeehouse on the street when visiting London in 1847. They were in the city to meet their publisher regarding Jane Eyre.
A fire broke out at number 20 Paternoster Row on 6 February 1890. Occupied by music publisher Fredrick Pitman, the first floor was found to be on fire by a police officer at 21:30. The fire alarm at St. Martain's-le-Grand and fire crews extinguished the flames in half an hour. The floor was badly damaged, with smoke, heat and water impacting the rest of the building.
This blaze was followed later the same year on 5 October by 'an alarming fire'. At 00:30 a fire was discovered at W. Hawtin and Sons, based in numbers 24 and 25. The wholesale stationers' warehouse was badly damaged by the blaze.
On 21 November 1894, police raided an alleged gambling club which was based on the first floor of 59 Paternoster Row. The club known both as the 'City Billiard Club' and the 'Junior Gresham Club' had been there barely three weeks at the time of the raid. Forty-five arrests were made, including club owner Albert Cohen.
On 4 November 1939, a large scale civil defence exercise was held in the City of London. One of the simulated seats of fire was in Paternoster Row.
Trübner & Co. was one of the publishing companies on Paternoster Row.
Destruction during World War IIEdit
The street was devastated by aerial bombardment during the Blitz of World War II, suffering particularly heavy damage in the night raid of 29–30 December 1940, later characterised as the Second Great Fire of London, during which an estimated 5 million books were lost in the fires caused by tens of thousands of incendiary bombs.
After the raid a letter was written to The Times describing 'a passage leading through "Simpkins" [which] has a mantle of stone which has survived the melancholy ruins around it. On this stone is the Latin inscription that seems to embody all that we are fighting for :- VERBUM DOMINI MANET IN AETERNUM' [The word of God remains forever].
Another correspondent with the newspaper, Ernest W. Larby, described his experience of 25 years working on Paternoster Row:
…had he [Lord Quickswood] worked for 25 years, as I did, in Paternoster Row, he would not have quite so much enthusiasm for those narrow ways into whose buildings the sun never penetrated… What these dirty, narrow ways of the greatest city in the world really stood for from the people's viewpoint are things we had better bury.— Ernest W. Larby
The ruins of Paternoster Row were visited by Wendell Willkie in January 1941. He said, "I thought that the burning of Paternoster Row, the street where the books are published, was rather symbolic. They [the Germans] have destroyed the place where the truth is told".
Printers and booksellers based in Paternoster RowEdit
- The Tyger's Head – Christopher Barker (????), his son Robert Barker (1545–1629)
- The Star – Henry Denham (1564)
- The Brazen Serpent (1627-1650) – Robert Dawlman (1627-1635, 1635-1638, died 1659), Luke Fawne (1635-1638, 1639-1641), Samuel Gellibrand (1639-1641, 1641-1650)
- The Golden Ball/Ball (1650-1675) – Samuel Gellibrand (1654, 1655, 1656, 1661, 1667, 1669, 1673) (died 1675), two of his sons Edward Gellibrand (1676, 1678, 1679, 1680, 1681, 1685), John Gellibrand (1679–1685), F.? Gellibrand (1683)
- The Gun – F.? Brome (1683)
- The Bell – B. Crayle (1683)
- The Sun – G. Wells (1683)
- The Angel – Moses Pitt (1683)
- The Bear – O. Blagrave (1683)
- The Rose and Crown – R. Chiswell (1683)
- The Crane – E. Brewster (1683)
- The Peacock – Robert Clavel/Clavell (1683)
- The Three Pigeons – F.? Baker (1683)
- The Golden Lyon/Golden Lion – F.? Robinson (1683)
- The Red Lyon/Red Lion – H. Bonwick (1683)
- The Phoenix/Phœnix – H. Mortlock (1683), Ed. Giles (1683)
- The Three Flower-de-luces/Three Flower-de-Luces – H. Hatley (1683)
- The Bishopshead/Bishops Head/Bishops head – W. Kettilby (1683)
- The Princes Arms/Prince's Arms (Arms of the Prince of Wales) – Samuel Smith (1683, 1692, 1694, 1695, 1704, 1705), Benjamin Walford (1694, 1695, 1705), printers to the Royal Society
- The Globe – F.? Taylor (1683), T. Cooper (1740)
- The Ship (later No. 38–41) – B. Tooke (1683), John Taylor (1710–1719), his son William Taylor (1708, 1719–1724), subsequently Longmans (see No. 39)
- The Black Swan – possibly John Taylor (????), later his son William Taylor (????), subsequently Longmans (????) (see No. 39)
- The Crown – T. Rickerton (1721)
- No. 1 – Jan Van Voorst (1851) (see No. 3)
- No. 2 – Orr and Co. (1851), J. W. Myers (~1800)
- No. 3 – Jan Van Voorst (1838) (see No. 1)
- No. 5 -- Groombridge and Sons (c. 1845 to c. 1875)
- No. 6 Panyer Alley -- R. Groombridge (prior to c. 1845)
- No. 9 – S. W. Partridge and Co. (1876)
- No. 11 – W. Brittain (1840)
- No. 12 – Trubner and Co. (1856)
- No. 15 – Samuel Bagster and Sons (1825, 1851, 1870)
- No. 17 – Thomas Kelly (1840)
- No. 20 & 21 – F. Pitman, later F. Pitman Hart and Co. Ltd. (1904)
- No. 21 – J. Parsons (1792)
- No. 23 – Piper, Stephenson, and Spence (1857)
- No. 24 – George Wightman (1831)
- No. 27 Ivy Lane – Walton and Maberly (also at No. 28) (1837-1857), Hodder & Stoughton (from 1868-06-16)
- No. 28 Upper Gower Street – Walton and Maberly (also at No. 27)
- No. 31 – Sheed & Ward
- No. 33 – Hamilton and Co. (1851)
- No. 37 – James Duncan (1825–1838), Blackwood and Sons (1851)
- No. 39 (see The Ship) – Longman, Hust, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green (1825), later Longman and Co. (1851), later Longmans, Green, and Co. (1902)
- No. 40 – West and Hughes (~1800)
- No. 47 – Baldwin and Craddock, later Chambers (1891)
- No. 56 – The Religious Tract Society (1851)
- No. 60 – The Sunday School Union (1851)
- No. 62 – Eliot Stock (1893)
- No. 65 – Houlston and Stoneman
Others based in Paternoster RowEdit
In popular cultureEdit
- The Paternoster Gang are a trio of Victorian detectives aligned with the Doctor in the television series Doctor Who, so named because they are based in Paternoster Row.
- In the episode "Young England" of the 2016 television series Victoria, a stalker of Queen Victoria indicates that he lives on Paternoster Row. (Coincidentally, the actress playing Victoria in the series, Jenna Coleman, had appeared in several episodes of Doctor Who that featured the aforementioned Paternoster Gang.)
- "Victorian London - Districts - Streets - Paternoster Row". Victorian London. Retrieved 2016-11-19.
- Raven, James (2007). The Business of Books: Booksellers and the English Book Trade 1450-1850. London and New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-30012261-9. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- Thornbury, Walter (1878). "Paternoster Row". Old and New London. Volume 1. London, United Kingdom. pp. 274–281. Retrieved 2014-12-10. 
- A Pictorial and Descriptive Guide to London and Its Environs: With Two Large Section Plans of Central London…. Ward, Lock & Company, Limited. 1919.
- "Aldus In The City". The Times (48522). 1940-01-25. p. 4.
- "Aldus in the City". The Times (48524). 1940-01-27. p. 4.
- "News in Brief – Charlotte Bronte in London". The Times (41152). 1916-04-27. p. 9.
- "Fire". The Times (32929). 1890-02-07. p. 7.
- "Paternoster-row, City". The Times (33135). 1890-10-06. p. 6.
- "Raid on City "Club"". The Times (34428). 1894-11-22. p. 11.
- ""Great Fire" Of London". The Times (48455). 1939-11-06. p. 3.
- "London Blitz — 29th December 1940 | Iconic Photos". Iconicphotos.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-11-19.
- "Verbum Domini". The Times (48839). 1941-02-01. p. 5.
- "Sir,-It is with some diffidence that I com-". The Times (49395). 1942-11-17. p. 5.
- "Ministers Greet Mr. Willkie". The Times (48835). 1941-01-28. p. 4.
- A Dictionary of Printers and Printing.
- "(unknown)". Notes and Queries: 240. 1870.
- Payne, William (1695) [1693-03-21]. Written at London, England. A Practical Discourse of Repentance, Rectifying the Mistakes about it, especially such as lead either to Despair or Presumption. Perswading and Directing to the True Practice of it, and Demonstrating the Invalidity of a Death-Bed Repentance (2nd ed.). The Princes Arms, St. Pauls Church Yard: Samuel Smith; Benjamin Walford. OCLC 51617518. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
- An Impartial Hand (1740). An Essay on the Management of the Present War with Spain. T. Cooper.
- Payne, William (1708) [1693-03-21]. A Practical Discourse of Repentance, Rectifying the Mistakes about it, especially such as lead either to Despair or Presumption. Perswading and Directing to the True Practice of it, and Demonstrating the Invalidity of a Death-Bed Repentance (corrected and reset 2nd ed.). London, England: Richard Burrough and John Baker at the Sun and Moon (near the Royal Exchange), Cornhill; William Taylor at the Ship, St. Paul's Church-Yard. OCLC 1086876590. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
- London Topographical Record. 3. London Topographical Society. 1906. p. 159.
- The British Metropolis in 1851
- Glasse, Hannah; Wilson, Maria (1800). The Complete Confectioner; or, Housekeeper's Guide: To a simple and speedy method of understanding the whole ART OF CONFECTIONARY. London, United Kingdom: West and Hughes.
- "(unknown)". The Athenæum: Journal of Literature, Science, the Fine Arts, Music and the Drama. 3056: 846. 1838.
- Various editions published during this period, including Morris, F. O. (1857) . A History of British Birds (six volumes).
- Church of England Temperance Tracts, no. 19, 1876
- The Secret History of the Court of England from the Commencement of 1750 to the Reign of William the Fourth. W. Brittain. 1840. p. frontispiece.
- The London catalogue of periodicals, newspapers and transactions of various societies with a list of metropolitan printing societies and clubs. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. 1856. p. 3, of wrapper.
- Feltham, John (1825). The picture of London, enlarged and improved (23rd ed.). Longman, Hust, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green. p. iv.
- Practical CARPENTRY, JOINERY and CABINET MAKING. Thomas Kelly. 1840-07-01.
- The World's Paper Trade Review, 1904-05-13, p. 38
- Plain truth: or, an impartial account of the proceedings at Paris during the last nine months. Containing, Among other interesting Anecdotes, a particular statement of the memorable tenth of August, and third of September. By an eye witness. 1792.
- (unknown). The Examiner. John Hunt. 1857-05-23. p. 336.
- Fox, William; Raikes, the Younger, Robert (1831). Ivimey, Joseph (ed.). Memoir of W. Fox, Esq., founder of the Sunday-School Society: comprising the history of the origin … of that … institution, with correspondence … between W. Fox, Esq. and R. Raikes, etc. George Wightman. (See also: Sunday School Society)
- De Morgan, Augustus (1837). Elements of algebra, preliminary to the differential calculus. p. 255.
- Attenborough, John (1975). A Living Memory.
- Yonge, Charles Duke (1902). Gradus Ad Parnassum. London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co. p. title.
- Wheatley, Henry Benjamin (2011) . "Paternoster Row". London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-1-108-02808-0.
- Wheatley, Henry Benjamin (1893). Literary Blunders - A Chapter in the History of Human Error. The Book Lover's Library. Eliot Stock. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
- Grey, Zachary (1740). A Vindication of the Government, Doctrine, and Worship, of the Church of England: Established in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Paternoster Row, London: C. Davis.
- Stevens, George Alexander (1771). The Choice Spirit's Chaplet: Or, a Poesy from Parnassus. Being a Select Collection of Songs, from the Most Approved Authors; Many of Them Written and the Whole Compiled by George Alexander Stevens, Esq. London: John Dunn, sold by Hawes, Clarke, and Collins. p. Front page.
- The Editors of The Gazetteer for Scotland, ed. (2019) [2016-11-19]. "Thomas Bonnar: 1810 - 1873". The Gazetteer for Scotland. (See also: Thomas Bonnar, the Younger)
- Fry, Herbert (1880). "Paternoster Row". London in 1880. London: David Bogue.
- Wallis, John (1814). "Paternoster Row". London: being a complete guide to the British capital (4th ed.). London: Sherwood, Neely, and Jones. OCLC 35294736.
- Dawlman, Robert. A Dictionary of the Booksellers and Printers who Were at Work in England, Scotland and Ireland from 1641 to 1667. 
- https://books.google.com/books?id=dUAuAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA127&lpg=PA126 A Survey of London
- https://worcestercollegelibrary.wordpress.com/2016/09/29/remembering-the-great-fire-of-london/ Remembering the Great Fire of London
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