Parenchyma (/pəˈrɛŋkɪmə/)[1][2] is the bulk of functional substance in an animal organ or structure such as a tumour. In zoology, it is the name for the tissue that fills the interior of flatworms. In botany, it is used to refer to some layers in the cross-section of the leaf.[3]

Lung parenchyma showing damage due to large subpleural bullae.



The term parenchyma is Neo-Latin from the Ancient Greek word παρέγχυμα parenchyma meaning 'visceral flesh', and from παρεγχεῖν parenkhein meaning 'to pour in' from παρα- para- 'beside' + ἐν en- 'in' + χεῖν khein 'to pour'.[4]

Originally, Erasistratus and other anatomists used it to refer to certain human tissues.[5] Later, it was also applied to plant tissues by Nehemiah Grew.[6]



The parenchyma is the functional parts of an organ, or of a structure such as a tumour in the body. This is in contrast to the stroma, which refers to the structural tissue of organs or of structures, namely, the connective tissues.[citation needed]



The brain parenchyma refers to the functional tissue in the brain that is made up of the two types of brain cell, neurons and glial cells.[7] It is also known to contain collagen proteins.[8] Damage or trauma to the brain parenchyma often results in a loss of cognitive ability or even death. Bleeding into the parenchyma is known as intraparenchymal hemorrhage.[citation needed]



Lung parenchyma is the substance of the lung that is involved with gas exchange and includes the pulmonary alveoli.[9]



The liver parenchyma is the functional tissue of the organ made up of around 80% of the liver volume as hepatocytes. The other main type of liver cells are non-parenchymal. Non-parenchymal cells constitute 40% of the total number of liver cells but only 6.5% of its volume.[10]



The renal parenchyma is divided into two major structures: the outer renal cortex and the inner renal medulla. Grossly, these structures take the shape of 7 to 18[11] cone-shaped renal lobes, each containing renal cortex surrounding a portion of medulla called a renal pyramid.[12]



The tumor parenchyma, of a solid tumour, is one of the two distinct compartments in a solid tumour. The parenchyma is made up of neoplastic cells. The other compartment is the stroma induced by the neoplastic cells, needed for nutritional support and waste removal. In many types of tumour, clusters of parenchymal cells are separated by a basal lamina that can sometimes be incomplete.[13]



Parenchyma is the tissue made up of cells and intercellular spaces that fills the interior of the body of a flatworm, which is an acoelomate. This is a spongy tissue also known as a mesenchymal tissue, in which several types of cells are lodged in their extracellular matrices. The parenchymal cells include myocytes, and many types of specialised cells. The cells are often attached to each other and also to their nearby epithelial cells mainly by gap junctions and hemidesmosomes. There is much variation in the types of cell in the parenchyma according to the species and anatomical regions. Its possible functions may include skeletal support, nutrient storage, movement, and many others.[14]


  1. ^ "Parenchyma". Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
  2. ^ "Parenchyma". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-03-22.
  3. ^
  4. ^ LeMone, Priscilla; Burke, Karen; Dwyer, Trudy; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Moxham, Lorna; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Berry, Kamaree; Carville, Keryln; Hales, Majella; Knox, Nicole; Luxford, Yoni; Raymond, Debra (2013). "Parenchyma". Medical-Surgical Nursing. Pearson Australia. p. G–18. ISBN 978-1-4860-1440-8. Archived from the original on 2015-11-30. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
  5. ^ Virchow, R.L.K. (1863). Cellular pathology as based upon physiological and pathological histology [...] by Rudolf Virchow. Translated from the 2nd ed. of the original by Frank Chance. With notes and numerous emendations, principally from MS. notes of the author. 1–562. [Cf. p. 339.] link Archived 2021-04-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Gager, C. S. 1915. The ballot for names for the exterior of the laboratory building, Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Rec. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. IV, pp. 105–123. link Archived 2017-11-10 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "What is the Brain Parenchyma? (With pictures)". Archived from the original on 2016-01-05. Retrieved 2015-12-28.
  8. ^ Arachchige, Arosh S Perera Molligoda (2021-03-16). "Collagen proteins are found also within the neural parenchyma in the healthy CNS". AIMS Neuroscience. 8 (3): 355–356. doi:10.3934/Neuroscience.2021019. ISSN 2373-8006. PMC 8222768. PMID 34183986.
  9. ^ Suki, B (July 2011). "Lung parenchymal mechanics". Comprehensive Physiology. 1 (3): 1317–1351. doi:10.1002/cphy.c100033. ISBN 9780470650714. PMC 3929318. PMID 23733644.
  10. ^ Kmieć Z (2001). "Introduction — Morphology of the Liver Lobule". Cooperation of Liver Cells in Health and Disease. Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology. Vol. 161. pp. iii–xiii, 1–151. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56553-3_1. ISBN 978-3-540-41887-0. PMID 11729749.
  11. ^ Ashton, Leah; Gullekson, Russ; Hurley, Mary; Olivieri, Marion (April 1, 2017). "Correlation of Kidney Size to Number of Renal Pyramids in the Goat Kidney". The FASEB Journal. 31 (1_supplement): 899.5. doi:10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.899.5. S2CID 208553793.
  12. ^ Walter F. Boron (2004). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-2328-9.
  13. ^ Connolly, James L.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Wang, Helen H.; Longtine, Janina A.; Dvorak, Ann; Dvorak, Harold F. (2003). "Tumor Structure and Tumor Stroma Generation". Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 6th edition. Archived from the original on 2020-12-19. Retrieved 2019-10-01.
  14. ^ Conn, D (1993). "The Biology of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes): Parenchyma Cells and Extracellular Matrices". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 112 (4): 241–261. doi:10.2307/3226561. JSTOR 3226561.