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P&O Cruises is a British cruise line based at Carnival House in Southampton, England, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc.

P&O Cruises
Subsidiary
IndustryTransportation
PredecessorP&O
Founded1977[1]
HeadquartersSouthampton, England, UK
Area served
United Kingdom
Key people
  • Josh Weinstein (President, Carnival UK)
  • Paul Ludlow (President, P&O Cruises)
  • David Dingle (Chairman, Carnival UK)
ProductsCruises
ParentCarnival Corporation & plc
WebsiteP&O Cruises

P&O Cruises was founded in 1977 as a subsidiary of the shipping and logistics company P&O,[1] which was founded in 1837 and first operated cruises in 1844.[2] Therefore P&O Cruises, along with its sister company P&O Cruises Australia, has the oldest heritage of any cruise line in the world.[3] In 2000, P&O Cruises de-merged from P&O, becoming a subsidiary of P&O Princess Cruises,[4] which in 2003 merged with Carnival Corporation to form Carnival Corporation & plc.[5] P&O Cruises currently operates six cruise ships and has a 2.4% market share of all cruise lines worldwide.[6]

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

In 1834, Brodie McGhie Willcox, a ship broker from London, and Arthur Anderson, a sailor from the Shetland Islands, formed an association with Captain Richard Bourne, a steamship owner from Dublin.[7] In 1837, the trio won a contract and began transporting mail and passengers from England to the Iberian Peninsula, founding the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company.[8][2] In 1840, the company merged with the Transatlantic Steam Ship Company and expanded their operations to the Orient, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O).[9] In 1844, P&O expanded its passenger operations from transportation to leisure cruising, operating sailings from England to the Mediterranean that were the first of their kind.[2] By the mid-1900s, passenger shipping for the purposes of transportation was threatened by the increasing affordability of air travel.[10] Consequently, P&O dedicated its passenger operations entirely to leisure cruising and, in 1977, relisted its passenger ships under the new subsidiary P&O Cruises.[1]

20th centuryEdit

 
Canberra of 1961 in Ponta Delgada, Azores in 1984
 
Oriana of 1995 at Las Palmas, Gran Canaria in 2003

Initially, P&O Cruises operated Oriana and Canberra from Southampton, serving the UK market,[11][12] and Arcadia from Sydney, serving the Australian market,[13] while Uganda operated educational cruises.[14] In 1979, Arcadia departed the Australian fleet[13] and was replaced by Sea Princess, which had previously been Kungsholm for Flagship Cruises.[15] In 1981, Oriana relocated to serve the Australian market,[11] while Sea Princess relocated to serve the UK market in 1982.[15] The same year, Canberra was requisitioned as a troopship during the Falklands War,[16] while Uganda was requisitioned as a hospital ship.[17] Uganda departed the fleet shortly thereafter, in 1983.[17] Oriana departed the Australian fleet in March 1986,[18] and Sea Princess departed the UK fleet in November 1986.[15] Rather than relocating another ship to Australia, P&O diverged its Australian operations in 1988, acquiring Sitmar Cruises, which already operated a ship in Australia.[11] This led to the formation of P&O Cruises Australia, which would oversee Australian operations, while P&O Cruises continued to oversee UK operations.[19]

In the 1990s, P&O Cruises commissioned its first newbuild cruise ship, the second Oriana, which entered service in April 1995.[20] At 69,153 gross tons, the new Oriana was one of the largest cruise ships in the world.[21] Sea Princess also returned to the fleet in 1995, under the new name Victoria.[15] Canberra departed the fleet in 1997 and was replaced the same year by a second Arcadia, which had previously been Star Princess for Princess Cruises.[12] In 2000, Aurora, another newbuild and a half-sister to Oriana, entered service for P&O Cruises.[22] However, her service suffered an inauspicious start when she was forced to abandon her maiden voyage due to mechanical problems.[22] The same year, all cruise operations de-merged from P&O and formed the independent company P&O Princess Cruises, which now owned P&O Cruises.[4]

21st centuryEdit

 
Britannia of 2015 in Rotterdam, Netherlands in 2019, bearing the company's post-2014 livery

In 2002, Victoria departed the fleet[15] and Oceana joined, having previously been Ocean Princess for Princess Cruises.[23] In 2003, the ownership of P&O Cruises changed once again when P&O Princess Cruises merged with Carnival Corporation to form Carnival Corporation & plc.[5] Thereafter, Arcadia transferred to Carnival Corporation & plc's new Ocean Village brand.[24] Adonia, previously Sea Princess and a sister to Oceana, replaced Arcadia but returned to Princess Cruises in 2005.[25] Adonia was replaced the same year by a newbuild Arcadia, which was allocated to P&O Cruises after having originally been intended for Holland America Line and thereafter Cunard Line.[26] Arcadia was joined by Artemis, previously Royal Princess for Princess Cruises.[27] The fleet expanded and modernised with the addition of the 116,017-ton newbuild Ventura in 2008,[28] and her sister Azura in 2010.[29] Artemis departed the fleet in 2011[30] and was replaced by a second Adonia, which like Artemis had previously been Royal Princess for Princess Cruises.[31]

In 2012, P&O Cruises celebrated the 175th anniversary of the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company by staging a 'Grand Event', in which the entire fleet was assembled in Southampton.[32] In 2014, the company introduced a new livery, based on the Union Jack, to emphasise its British heritage,[33] and in 2015, the 143,730-ton newbuild Britannia joined the fleet.[34] Adonia transferred to Carnival Corporation & plc's new Fathom brand in April 2016,[35] but would return the following year.[36] In September 2016, P&O Cruises announced that it would build a new 180,000-ton ship in 2020,[37] and in 2018, it announced that a sister would follow in 2022,[38] and that the first of the two would be called Iona.[39] These ships would be the UK's first to be powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG), shipping’s most advanced fuel technology, with the intention of reducing air emissions.[40] Adonia departed the fleet once again in 2018,[41] and Oriana followed in 2019.[42]

Golden CockerelEdit

P&O Cruises awards the company’s Golden Cockerel trophy to the fastest ship in its fleet.[12] The trophy is currently held by Aurora, which achieved a speed of 25.7 knots in April 2019.[43] It was previously held by the first Oriana until her retirement in 1986,[12] Canberra until her retirement in 1997,[12] and the second Oriana until her retirement in 2019.[44]

FleetEdit

Current fleetEdit

Ship Built Builder In service for
P&O Cruises
Gross tonnage Flag[45] Notes Image
Aurora 2000 Meyer Werft 2000–present 03 76,152   Bermuda  
Oceana 2000 Fincantieri 2002–present 04 77,499   Bermuda Ocean Princess for Princess Cruises 2000–2002.  
Arcadia 2005 Fincantieri 2005–present 05 84,342   Bermuda  
Ventura 2008 Fincantieri 2008–present 07 116,017   Bermuda  
Azura 2010 Fincantieri 2010–present 06 115,055   Bermuda  
Britannia 2015 Fincantieri 2015–present 143,730   United Kingdom Flagship,[34] largest ever cruise ship built for P&O Cruises and the UK market.[46]  

Future fleetEdit

Ship Built Builder In service for
P&O Cruises
Gross Tonnage[47] Flag Notes
Iona 2020 Meyer Werft 2020 07 183,900 TBC Due to be the largest ever and first LNG-powered cruise ship built for P&O Cruises and the UK market.[39]
TBA 2022 Meyer Werft 2022 06 183,900 TBC Due to be the joint-largest ever cruise ship built for P&O Cruises and the UK market.[38]

Previous fleetEdit

Ship Built Builder In service for
P&O Cruises
Gross tonnage Flag Notes Image
Arcadia 1954 John Brown & Company 1977–1979 29,734   UK Arcadia for P&O 1954–1977. Scrapped in 1979.  
Uganda 1952 Barclay Curle 1977–1983 14,430   UK Uganda for the British India Steam Navigation Company 1952–1972, P&O 1972–1977, the Royal Navy 1983–1985. Scrapped in 1992.  
Oriana 1960 Vickers-Armstrong 1977–1986 41,910   UK Oriana for P&O 1960–1977, floating hotel/museum 1986–2004. Scrapped in 2005.  
Canberra 1961 Harland and Wolff 1977–1997 49,073   UK Canberra for P&O 1961–1977. Scrapped in 1997.  
Sea Princess/Victoria 1965 John Brown & Company 1979–1986 (as Sea Princess), 1995–2002 (as Victoria) 27,670   UK Kungsholm for Swedish America Line 1966–1975, Flagship Cruises 1975–1978, Sea Princess for Princess Cruises 1986–1995, Mona Lisa for Holiday Kreuzfahrten 2002–2006, Oceanic II for Louis Cruises 2007, Pullmantur Cruises 2007, The Scholar Ship 2007–2008, Mona Lisa for Lord Nelson Seereisen 2008, Peace Boat 2008–2009, Lord Nelson Seereisen 2009–2010. Scrapped in 2016.  
Arcadia 1988 Chantiers de l'Atlantique 1997–2003 63,500   UK Star Princess for Princess Cruises 1989–1997, Ocean Village for Ocean Village 2003–2010, Pacific Pearl for P&O Cruises Australia 2010–2017, Columbus for Cruise & Maritime Voyages 2017–present.  
Adonia 1998 Fincantieri 2003–2005 77,499   UK Sea Princess for Princess Cruises 1998–2003, 2005–present.  
Artemis 1984 Wärtsilä 2005–2011 44,348   Bermuda Royal Princess for Princess Cruises 1984–2005, Artania for Phoenix Reisen 2011–present.  
Adonia 2001 Chantiers de l'Atlantique 2011–2016, 2017–2018 30,277   Bermuda R Eight for Renaissance Cruises 2001–2003, Minerva II for Swan Hellenic 2003–2007, Royal Princess for Princess Cruises 2007–2011, Adonia for Fathom 2016–2017, Azamara Pursuit for Azamara Club Cruises 2018–present.  
Oriana 1995 Meyer Werft 1995–2019 02 69,153   Bermuda Piano Land for Astro Ocean 2019–present.[48]  

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "From Liners to Leisure". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "History of P&O". P&O Cruises Australia. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  3. ^ Coulter, Adam (21 December 2017). "P&O Cruises History". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b Bennett, Neil (23 July 2000). "P&O reshapes cruise float". Telegraph. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Carnival cruises towards P&O deal". BBC. 25 October 2002. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  6. ^ "2018 Worldwide Cruise Line Market Share". Cruise Market Watch. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  7. ^ "Men of Steam". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  8. ^ "First Mail Contract". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Royal Charter". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  10. ^ "The Threat from Above". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  11. ^ a b c Goossens, Reuben. "From Birth to Breakers". SS Maritime. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e Goossens, Reuben. "SS Canberra – Times Are 'a' Changing". SS Maritime. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  13. ^ a b Messinger, Nick. "P&O ss Arcadia 1954". The Old Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  14. ^ "Educational cruise ship service". SS Uganda Trust. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d e Goossens, Reuben. "From P&O's Sea Princess, Victoria, Mona Lisa, Oceanic II and Hotel Veronca to the breakers in 2015". SS Maritime. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  16. ^ "South to the Falklands". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  17. ^ a b "SS Uganda Trust Home Page". SS Uganda Trust. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  18. ^ "Ship Fact Sheet: Oriana (1960)" (PDF). P&O Heritage. November 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  19. ^ "History of Our Fleet". P&O Cruises Australia. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  20. ^ "P&O Oriana – Cruise Ship". Ship Technology. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  21. ^ "Oriana Ship History". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ a b "Super-liner limps back to port". BBC. 3 May 2000. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  23. ^ Boyle, Ian. "Oceana – Ocean Princess". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  24. ^ "CMV Columbus". CruiseMapper. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  25. ^ Boyle, Ian. "Adonia – Sea Princess of P&O Princess Cruises". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  26. ^ Williamson, Jeannine. "Arcadia Review". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  27. ^ Vass, Jacqueline (12 June 2004). "A great sea change". Telegraph. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  28. ^ Archer, Jane (17 April 2008). "Helen Mirren's mission on the Ventura". Telegraph. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  29. ^ Archer, Jane (23 November 2009). "Darcey Bussell named Godmother of Azura". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  30. ^ Honeywell, John (22 September 2009). "P&O confirm sale of Artemis". Captain Greybeard. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  31. ^ "Shirley Bassey names cruise ship Adonia in Southampton". BBC. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  32. ^ "P&O Cruises to mark its 175th with Grand Event". Travel Weekly. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  33. ^ "P&O Cruises reveals new Union Flag livery". Travel Weekly. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  34. ^ a b Thompson, Nigel (27 February 2015). "See inside P&O Cruises' new flagship Britannia and discover why it really is such a big deal". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  35. ^ Sampson, Hannah (4 June 2015). "Carnival launches fathom, a new "social impact travel" brand". Miami Herald. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  36. ^ Davies, Phil (24 November 2016). "Fathom to lose only ship as Adonia rejoins P&O fleet". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  37. ^ Davies, Phil (6 September 2016). "P&O Cruises announces order for biggest ever ship". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  38. ^ a b "P&O Orders New Ship for 2022 Delivery". Cruise Industry News. 25 January 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  39. ^ a b Coulter, Adam (24 May 2018). "P&O Cruises Reveals Name of New Ship: Iona". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  40. ^ "Carnival Corporation to Build Three New LNG-Powered Cruise Ships with Meyer Werft and Meyer Turku". Carnival Corporation & plc. 6 September 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  41. ^ "P&O Respond And Apologise To Guests After News Of Selling Ship". Cruise. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  42. ^ Davies, Phil (29 June 2018). "Oriana to leave P&O Cruises fleet in August 2019". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  43. ^ Ludlow, Paul (22 August 2019). "The passing of the P&O Cruises 'Golden Cockerel' trophy, from one captain to another". Twitter. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  44. ^ "Oriana leaving P&O Cruises fleet" (PDF). Tom's Cruise Blog. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  45. ^ "Vessel Database". FleetMon. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  46. ^ "USA: Fincantieri Receives Order from Carnival Corps to Build New Cruise Ship". Shipbuilding Tribune. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  47. ^ "Cruise ship orderbook". Cruise Industry News. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  48. ^ "Astro Ocean Takes Over Piano Land as Ship Sails for China". Cruise Industry News. 17 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.

External linksEdit