Ottoman–Persian War (1775–1776)
The Ottoman–Persian War of 1775–1776 was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Zand dynasty of Persia. The Persians, ruled by Karim Khan and led by his brother Sadeq Khan Zand, invaded southern Iraq and after besieging Basra for a year, took the city from the Ottomans in 1776. The Ottomans, unable to send troops, were dependent on the Mamluk governors to defend that region.
|Ottoman–Persian War (1775–1776)|
|Part of the Ottoman–Persian Wars|
Karim Khan Zand with the Ottoman envoy Vehbi Efendi.
|Commanders and leaders|
Karim Khan Zand|
Sadeq Khan Zand
Khosrow Khan Bozorg
Abdul Hamid I|
|Southern Persian Military, Zandieh Regiments||Unknown|
|Casualties and losses|
The Conflict background included a conflict between the Governor of Baghdad and the principility of Baban. The Kurdish Chiefdoms itself sided with the Zand Dynasty as growing influence of the Zands and promise of Independence or part of the Empire, while the Kurds like other non-Arabic and Turkish Peoples became more hostile toward the Ottoman Empire. After the Victory they gained a semi-Independent status which lasted until the fall in 1794, where the Chiefdoms became a Vassal and semi-Autonomous status again. The Ottomans now became more mistrustful towards Kurds aswell.
In an attempt to raise troops and provisions for this war, Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid I, made Suleiman al-Jalili mubayaaci (official of provisions), ordering him to send provisions to Baghdad, which he ignored, instead he restricted merchants from selling their goods. The Kurdish tribes and Chiefdom Dynasties refused to help the Ottomans as influence of the growing Zand Dynasty. As a result, the Persians held Basra until 1779 when the Ottomans, under Sulayman Agha, retook the city, following Karim Khan's death.
In 1778, Karim Khan had made a compromise with the Russians for a cooperative offensive into eastern Anatolia. However, the invasion never took place due to Karim Khan's death on 1 March 1779, after having been ill for six months, most likely due to tuberculosis. This may also indicate for the support of the Kurds nad maybe Armenians and its factor for liberation against the Ottoman Empire. Despite this its not always seen as a Kurdish revolt against the Ottoman Empire. Also since the Zand Dynasty was of Luri origin and not always seen as a Kurdish subgroup. After the Persian Qajars took the power in 1794, they did not support any of the plans nor any Kurdish Revolts outside Persia/Iran. There was also no Pan-Kurdish Revolts until the revolts of Sheikh Ubeydullah
While the War itself has been forgotten. It was one of the things that influenced the Middle East during World War 1. It has still influenced Turkey (The main successor of the Ottoman Empire in 1923) and its Politics towards Kurds outside Turkey and the Border Regions and also bordering States and seeing the Kurds as the threat of the National Security.
The Conflict had a big influence in Turkey's Kurdish Politics outside of Turkey, seeing them often as threats
- List of Turkish Armed Forces operations in Northern Iraq
- Hood event
- Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War - Fighting mainly against Kurdish YPG Militias
- Encyclopedia Iranica : "In 1775 the Wakil sent his brother (Moḥammad) Ṣādeq Khan to besiege Basra in Ottoman Iraq, which after a yearlong siege was taken and occupied until Karim Khan’s death in 1779"
- Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E : page 113 : "Jealous of the Turkish port of Basra, Persian Regent Karim Khan sent a siege force under his brother Sadiq Khan. an Omani fleet broke the blocade but a relief force from Baghdad was repulsed and Governor Sulayman Aqa was finally starved into surrender"
- Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf: 1745-1900. SUNY Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781438402376.
- Mohibbul Hasan, Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople, (Aakar Books, 2005), 19.
- Dina Rizk Khoury, State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540-1834, (Cambridge University Press, 2002), 47.
- Dina Rizk Khoury, State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540-1834, 44.
- Dina Rizk Khoury, State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540-1834, 69.
- 'Abd al-Hamid I, M. Cavid Baysun, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R. Gibb, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 62.
- Dionisius A. Agius, In the Wake of the Dhow: The Arabian Gulf and Oman, (Ithaca Press, 2010), 15.
- Shaw 1991, p. 311.
- Perry 2011, pp. 561–564.
- Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C. (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521200954.
- Perry, John R. (2011). "Karim Khan Zand". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XV, Fasc. 6. pp. 561–564.
- Perry, John R. (2010). "Zand dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XV, Fasc. 6.
- Perry, John R., Karīm Khān Zand: a history of Iran, 1747–1779 University of Chicago Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-226-66098-1 and One World Publications, 2006 ISBN 978-1-85168-435-9.
- Malcolm, John, Sir, The history of Persia, from the most early period to the present time containing an account of the religion, government, usages, and character of the inhabitants of that kingdom in 2 volumes; London : Murray, 1815.; re-published by Adamant Media Corporation 2004 vol 1. ISBN 978-1-4021-5134-7; vol. 2 ISBN 978-1-4021-5205-4.
- Perry, John (1991). "The Zand dynasty". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–104. ISBN 9780521200950.
- Garthwaite, Gene R. (2005). The Persians. Wiley. pp. 1–311. ISBN 9781557868602.
- Shaw, Stanford (1991). "Iranian relations with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 297–314. ISBN 9780521200950.
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