Orders of magnitude (force)
Since weight under gravity is a force, several of these examples refer to the weight of various objects. Unless otherwise stated, these are weights under average Earth gravity at sea level.
Below 1 NEdit
||3.6×10−47 N||Gravitational attraction of the proton and the electron in hydrogen atom|
||8.9×10−30 N||Weight of an electron|
||1.6×10−26 N||Weight of a hydrogen atom|
|5 yN||Force necessary to synchronize the motion of a single trapped ion with an external signal measured in a 2010 experiment|
|10−22||170 yN||Force measured in a 2010 experiment by perturbing 60 beryllium-9 ions|
|10−14||~10 fN||Brownian motion force on an E. coli bacterium averaged over 1 second|
|~10 fN||Weight of an E. coli bacterium|
|10−13||~100 fN||Force to stretch double-stranded DNA to 50% relative extension|
|~4 pN||Force to break a hydrogen bond|
|~5 pN||Maximum force of a molecular motor|
|10−10||~160 pN||Force to break a typical noncovalent bond|
|~1.6 nN||Force to break a typical covalent bond|
||8.2×10−8 N||Force on an electron in a hydrogen atom|
||2×10−7 N||Force between two 1 meter long conductors, 1 meter apart by an outdated definition of one ampere|
|1–150 μN||Output of FEEP ion thrusters used in NASA's Laser Interferometer Space Antenna|
|10−2||19-92 mN||Thrust of the NSTAR ion engine tested on NASA's space probe Deep Space 1|
1 N and aboveEdit
|1 N||1.4 N||The weight of a smartphone|
|2.5 N||Typical thrust of a Dual-Stage 4-Grid ion thruster.|
|10 N||9.8 N||One kilogram-force, nominal weight of a 1 kg object at sea level on Earth|
|50 N||Average force to break the shell of chicken eggs of young hens|
|102 N||720 N||Average force of human bite, measured at molars|
|5 kN||The force applied by the engine of a small car during peak acceleration|
|8 kN||The maximum force achieved by weight lifters during a 'clean and jerk' lift (During the clean part)|
|9 kN||The bite force of one adult American alligator|
|104 N||16.5 kN||The bite force of a 5.2m Saltwater Crocodile|
|18 kN||The estimated bite force of a 6.1m adult great white shark|
|25 kN||Approximate force applied by the motors of a Tesla Model S during maximal acceleration|
|25.5 to 34.5 kN||The estimated bite force of a large 6.7m adult Saltwater Crocodile|
|105 N||100 kN||The average force applied by seatbelt and airbag to a restrained passenger in a car which hits a stationary barrier at 100 km/h|
|569 kN||Maximum thrust of a large turbofan engine (General Electric GE90)|
|890 kN||Maximum pulling force (tractive effort) of a single large diesel-electric locomotive|
|1.8 MN||Thrust of Space Shuttle Main Engine at lift-off|
|1.9 MN||Weight of the largest Blue Whale|
|107 N||35 MN||Thrust of Saturn V rocket at lift-off|
|108 N||570 MN||Simplistic estimate of force of sunlight on Earth|
|1020 N||2.0×1020 N||Gravitational attraction between Earth and Moon|
|1022 N||3.5×1022 N||Gravitational attraction between Earth and Sun|
- Hugh D. Young, University Physics 4th Ed, 1992, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, Inc.
- Knünz, S.; Herrmann, M.; Batteiger, V.; Saathoff, G.; Hänsch, T.; Vahala, K.; Udem, T. (2010). "Injection Locking of a Trapped-Ion Phonon Laser" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 105 (1): 013004. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.105a3004K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.013004. PMID 20867440.
- "Single atoms for detecting extremely weak forces". Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- Brumfiel, G. (2010). "Scientists measure atomic nudge". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.187.
- M. J. Biercuk; H. Uys; J. W. Britton; A. P. VanDevender; J. J. Bollinger (9 Apr 2010). "YoctoNewton force detection sensitivity using trapped ions". arXiv:1004.0780.
detection of forces as small as 174 yN
- "Forces involved at the biological level". PicoTwist. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "E. coli Statistics". The CyberCell Database. Archived from the original on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
- Calculated: weight = mass * g = 1e-15 kg * 9.81 m/s^2 = 1e-14 N
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2009-01-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "NSTAR Ion Thruster". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 January 2003. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
thrust from 19 mN to 92 mN
- "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Damme, Klaus (2020). Geflügeljahrbuch 2021. Stuttgart, Germany: Eugen Ulmer KG. pp. 262–281. ISBN 978-3-8186-1186-6.
- Houston T E, Bite Force and Bite Pressure: Comparisons of Humans and Dogs, 2003 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2016-02-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- The Human Machine By R. McNeill Alexander, Mark Iley, Sally Alexander
- Erickson, G. M.; Lappin, A. K.; Vliet, K. A. (2003). "The ontogeny of bite-force performance in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 260 (3): 317. doi:10.1017/S0952836903003819. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-07. 9452 N
- "Crocodiles Have Strongest Bite Ever Measured, Hands-on Tests Show". Retrieved 15 March 2012.
The "winners"—saltwater crocodiles—slammed their jaws shut with 3,700 pounds per square inch (psi), or 16,460 newtons, of bite force.
- "Great White Tops List of Hardest-Biting Sharks". Discovery News. Discovery Channel. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
a bite force of 9,320 Newton at the tip of its jaws and 18,216 N at the back of its jaws
- Calculated from maximum acceleration of 1.22 g and kerb mass 2050 kg.
- "Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation". Retrieved 14 March 2012.
scientifically documented 6.7-meter long Crocodylus porosus individuals were likely capable of molariform bite forces of approximately 27,531 N to 34,424 N (6,187 to 7,736 lbs).
- Lawrence Weinstein and John A. Adams, Guesstimation, 2008, Section 6.3.1
- "Space Shuttle Main Engine". Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
109% power level at sea level: 418,000 lb
- Wade, Mark. "SSME". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
Launches normally used 104% ... as a maximum
- Calculated: 418000 lbf * 4.45 N/lbf * (104% launch power level / 109%) = 1.77e6 N.
- "What Was the Saturn V?". NASA. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
The rocket generated 34.5 million newtons ... of thrust at launch
- 1.63 x 10−14 x gravitational attraction between Earth and Sun, assuming total absorption of sunlight Sunlight Exerts Pressure, NASA Glenn LTP Math & Science Resources
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2009-01-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)