Olivier Jean Blanchard (French: [blɑ̃ʃaʁ]; born December 27, 1948) is a French economist and professor who is a Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. He was the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund from September 1, 2008 to September 8, 2015. Blanchard was appointed to the position under the tenure of Dominique Strauss-Kahn; he was succeeded by Maurice Obstfeld. He also is a Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is one of the most cited economists in the world, according to IDEAS/RePEc.
Blanchard at the restitution of the 2008 World Economic Outlook survey
|Institution||Peterson Institute for International Economics (since 2015)|
International Monetary Fund (2008–2015)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
|New Keynesian economics|
|Alma mater||ESCP Europe
Paris Dauphine University
Michael C. Burda
Ricardo J. Caballero
Charles I. Jones
|Information at IDEAS / RePEc|
Blanchard graduated from ESCP Europe (one of France's top grandes écoles in business) in 1970. From 1970 to 1973, he completed graduate level courses in economics and applied mathematics at Paris Dauphine University and Paris Nanterre University. He obtained a PhD in economics from the MIT in 1977. He taught at Harvard University between 1977 and 1983, after which time he returned to MIT as a professor. Between 1998 and 2003 Blanchard served as the Chairman of the Economics Department at MIT.
Blanchard has published numerous research papers in the field of macroeconomics, as well as undergraduate and graduate macroeconomics textbooks. In 1987, together with Nobuhiro Kiyotaki, Blanchard demonstrated the importance of monopolistic competition for the aggregate demand multiplier. Most New Keynesian macroeconomic models now assume monopolistic competition for the reasons outlined by them.
International Monetary FundEdit
During his tenure as Chief Economist, Blanchard's reshaped IMF policies. During the Great Recession Blanchard supported global fiscal stimulus. During its slow recovery he urged a cautious removal of stimulus and advocated quantitative easing.
Austerity v. stimulus debateEdit
By 2010, following the financial crisis, many countries ran significant budget deficits. There was a global turn to austerity as Washington Consensus economists encouraged governments to cut spending and raise taxes to avoid a government debt crisis, as occurred in Greece. In June 2010 Blanchard and Carlo Cottarelli, the director of the IMF's fiscal affairs department co-authored an IMF blog post entitled "Ten Commandments for Fiscal Adjustment in Advanced Economies."
By 2011 Paul Krugman noted that Blanchard was already "suggesting that harsh austerity programs may be literally self-defeating, hurting the economy so much that they worsen fiscal prospects." By 2012 every country that had introduced "significant austerity" suffered economically. Blanchard issued "what amounted to a mea culpa." According to Paul Krugman, "the IMF now believes that it massively understated the damage that spending cuts inflict on a weak economy."
Under Blanchard's tenure at IMF, Jonathan D. Ostry and Andy Berg published their findings that "inequality was detrimental to sustained growth." By April 2014 in the World Economic Outlook Blanchard situated inequality as a "central issue" for "macroeconomic developments."
as the effects of the financial crisis slowly diminish, another trend may come to dominate the scene, namely rising inequality. Though inequality has always been perceived to be a central issue, until recently it was not seen as having major implications for macroeconomic developments. This belief is increasingly called into question. How inequality affects both the macroeconomy, and the design of macroeconomic policy, will likely be increasingly important items on our agenda for a long time to come.— Olivier Blanchard World Economic Outlook April 2014
- "Olivier Blanchard's CV", Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Economics, nd, retrieved 3 October 2015
- "Olivier Blanchard Contact Information", Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Economics, nd, retrieved 3 October 2015
- Blanchard, Olivier (1977). Two essays on economic fluctuations (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Benabou, Roland Jean-Marc (1986). Optimal price dynamics, speculation and search under inflation (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Burda, Michael C. "CV" (PDF). Humboldt University of Berlinn. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- Caballero, Ricardo J. (1988). The Stochastic Behavior of Consumption and Savings (PDF) (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- Galí, Jordi (1989). Essays on macroeconomics (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Kashyap, A. K. (1989). Price setting and investment : models and evidence (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Saint-Paul, Gilles (1990). Essays on labor markets and macro-economic activity (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Eberly, Janice Caryl (1991). Durable goods and transactions costs : theory and evidence (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Jones, Charles I. (1993). Time Series Tests of Endogenous Growth Models (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Laibson, David Isaac (1994). Hyperbolic Discounting and Consumption (PDF) (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier (1996). Essays on exchange rates, and consumption (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Shimer, Robert (1996). Essays in search theory (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- Landier, Augustin (2001). Essays on entrepreneurship, venture capital and innovation (PDF) (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Wolfers, Justin. "CV" (PDF). NBER. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- "RePEc Genealogy page for Justin Wolfers". RePEc Genealogy. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- Philippon, Thomas (2003). Three essays in macroeconomics (PDF) (Ph.D.). MIT. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- "Blanchard Sees Global Economy Weathering Financial Storm", International Monetary Fund, 2 September 2008
- Pearlstein, Steven (2 October 2015). "The smartest economist you've never heard of". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "IMF Economic Counsellor and Director of Research Olivier Blanchard To Retire from the Fund" (International Monetary Fund; May 14, 2015).
- IMF (20 July 2015). "IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde Appoints Maurice Obstfeld as Economic Counsellor and Director of the IMF's Research Department". Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- Economist Rankings at IDEAS
- Alumni, ESCP Europe. "ESCP Europe Alumni - Hall of Fame". www.escpeuropealumni.org. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "Olivier Blanchard, professeur d'économie au MIT - EuropUSA". EuropUSA (in French). Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- Asia 21 Bio
- Blanchard, Olivier Jean; Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro (1987). "Monopolistic Competition and the Effects of Aggregate Demand". American Economic Review. 77 (4): 647–666. JSTOR 1814537.
- Loungani, Prakash (2 October 2015). "The Frenchman Who Reshaped the IMF Reflections on the work of Olivier, the IMF's now retired chief economist". The Globalist. Washington, DC. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Krugman, Paul (29 April 2015). "The case for cuts was a lie. Why does Britain still believe it? The austerity delusion by Paul Krugman". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Blanchard, Olivier; Cottarelli, Carlo (24 June 2010). "Ten Commandments for Fiscal Adjustment in Advanced Economies". iMFdirect. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Krugman, Paul (21 December 2011). "Olivier Blanchard Isn't Very Serious". The Conscience of a Liberal. New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Berg, Andrew G.; Ostry, Jonathan D. (8 April 2011). "Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. p. 20. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "IMF: rising inequality is an increasingly important issue". The Guardian. UK. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
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