Old Government Buildings, Wellington

New Zealand's Old Government Buildings sit on the Government Buildings Historic Reserve, on Lambton Quay in central Wellington. The buildings were completed in 1876 on land reclaimed from Wellington Harbour to house the young New Zealand Government and its public service.

Old Government Buildings
Old Government Buildings - whole.JPG
The Old Government Buildings seen from the front right
General information
Architectural styleNeo-Renaissance
Location15 Lambton Quay, Wellington, New Zealand
Coordinates41°16′46″S 174°46′41″E / 41.279484°S 174.777975°E / -41.279484; 174.777975
Current tenantsVictoria University of Wellington Faculty of Law
Construction started1875
LandlordDepartment of Conservation
Technical details
Floor count4
Design and construction
Architect(s)William Clayton
Designated2 July 1982
Reference no.37
A crowd on ANZAC Day next to the Wellington cenotaph with the sun rising over the Old Government Building.

The building now houses the Victoria University of Wellington's Law School. It is classified as a category I historic place by Heritage New Zealand.[1]

Until 1998 the building was the second-largest wooden building in the world (after Tōdai-ji in Nara, Japan).[2][failed verification]


360° panorama of the building

Construction and styleEdit

The building was commissioned in the early 1870s by the Fox Ministry, partially in anticipation of the abolition of the provincial governments. It was originally planned to have the building constructed in concrete and timber, but the cost of concrete at the time led to a decision to build in timber alone. The Italianate, Neo-Renaissance style was usually the domain of stone buildings, thus the building is designed to mimic stone. As an important symbol of nationhood, the building was constructed to resemble an Italian stone palace to help convey its strength and stability in the expanding empire.[2] The timber is native kauri, which could not be replicated because New Zealand's remaining public kauri forests are permanently protected. If the building had been constructed out of stone as planned, it may not have survived subsequent earthquakes, as it is situated near a major fault line.[3] The architect was William Clayton and the contractors were Scoular and Archibald.

The building has 143 rooms, 64 toilets, 126 fireplaces and 22 chimneys.[4] When it opened in 1876, after 22 months of construction, and at a cost of £39 000,[5] it was easily the largest building in the country [6] and is now considered to be one of New Zealand's most important historic buildings.[1] The building was built on reclaimed land.

Expansion and restorationEdit

The building was extended in 1897 and again in 1907, with additions to the wings. It was also surrounded by outbuildings, and the original interior obscured by partitions, linings and paint. Following the departure of the Education Department, the building underwent thorough restoration under the management of the Department of Conservation, which at the time included the Historic Places Trust. Although some early work was done in the 1980s, the bulk of the restoration took place from 1994 to 1996. Many original features were replicated, including fireplaces although these are now purely decorative. The original totara piles were replaced with concrete. Over 500 cubic metres of recycled kauri was used during the restoration project, to supplement the original timber. Verandahs, late Victorian and Edwardian water radiators, the original clock and coat of arms, a water-powered hydraulic lift, and the impressive staircases were all restored or preserved.[5]

The piles, originally totara, are now concrete. All structural framing is Tasmanian hardwood (now augmented with pinus radiata), while weatherboards, flooring and finishing timbers are kauri.[6] A two year programme of restoration of the 804 sash windows in the building was completed in 2021.[4]

Smokefree policyEdit

Over concerns about the threat of fire, smoking was banned within the building from its opening,[7] making it the first building in the world to have a smoke-free policy.[citation needed]

Changing usesEdit

The building is now home to the Victoria University of Wellington Faculty of Law. Pictured in 2005.

The Old Government Building was an important symbol of nationhood, as it was completed in the same month that provincial government in New Zealand ended and central government 'finally asserted its authority'.[5] The building initially housed the entire Wellington-based civil service as well as the entire New Zealand Cabinet. In addition, the Executive Council met there until 1948. The civil service rapidly expanded beyond the capacity of the building, with the first department leaving shortly after it was opened. By 1975 only the Education Department remained, and by 1990 the building was empty.

After housing government departments for 114 years, Government funding was made available and restoration began in 1994 under the management of the Department of Conservation, which became the building's owners. Wherever possible the building was to be restored to its 1907 appearance, when the north and south wing extensions were completed. The project spanned two years and cost $25 million.[1] The government buildings were formally reopened in January 1996 after the Law Faculty of Victoria University signed a 50-year tenancy that year and became its new occupants. Its restoration is considered a landmark government-initiated heritage conservation project.[1]

Public admissionEdit

The building was reopened in January 1996. The grounds are open to the public, and contain examples of rare native New Zealand flora.[5] The public may view the displays on the ground floor and the Cabinet room on the first floor, but the rest of the building is leased to the Victoria University School of Law.[5]

Suspected arson attackEdit

In March 2015, the buildings suffered minimal damage in a suspected arson attack.[8]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d "Government Buildings". New Zealand Heritage List/Rārangi Kōrero. Heritage New Zealand. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
  2. ^ a b Historic Government Buildings Department of Conservation
  3. ^ Wellington City Operative District Plan Volume 3 Map 17 Archived 25 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Fallon, Virginia (31 October 2021). "No pane, no gain: 804 windows in and Mike Deavin's not done". Stuff. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e Department of Conservation Government Buildings Historic Reserve 2002
  6. ^ a b Wellington City Council Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Architecture Week" (PDF). Archived from the original on 24 July 2011.
  8. ^ Hunt, Tom (4 March 2015). "Suspected arson at Victoria University law school building". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 4 March 2015.

External linksEdit