OSAM-1 (On-orbit Servicing, Assembly, and Manufacturing 1) is a US NASA spacecraft designed to test on-orbit refilling of satellites. It was previously known as Restore-L.[1][2][3]

Originally planned for 2020,[4] its launch is currently planned for no earlier than 2025.[5] Its first objective would be the complex refueling of Landsat 7, an existing satellite launched in 1999. It would involve grasping the satellite with a mechanical arm, gaining access to the satellite's fuel tank by cutting through insulation and wires and unscrewing a bolt, and then attaching a hose to pump in hydrazine fuel. This would be the first refueling of a satellite in space, and a demonstration of the potential to repair the thousands of satellites in orbit and keep them in operation.[1] Because the satellites now in space were not designed to be serviced, there are significant challenges to doing so successfully.[1][2]

OSAM-1's second objective would be to deploy a separate robot called SPIDER (Space Infrastructure Dexterous Robot) to build a new structure in space. Using robots to build and assemble new structural components from scratch would be an important step towards a type of space-based construction that has been impossible to date.[1]


The OSAM-1 spacecraft will include :

  • two arms to grapple the target satellite
  • the attached payload for SPIDER


In 2016, NASA's Restore-L satellite was intended to refuel Landsat 7.[4] In 2020 SPIDER was added and the name was changed from Restore-L to OSAM-1.


A subsequent mission, OSAM-2 will also have two robotic arms.[6] OSAM-2 will use ModuLink software which is based on xLink.[6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Kleiner, Kurt (24 February 2022). "Orbiting robots could help fix and fuel satellites in space". Knowable Magazine. doi:10.1146/knowable-022422-1. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  2. ^ a b Henshaw, Carl Glen; Glassner, Samantha; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian (3 May 2022). "Grappling Spacecraft". Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems. doi:10.1146/annurev-control-042920-011106. ISSN 2573-5144. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  3. ^ "OSAM-1 Mission". NASA. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  4. ^ a b Hall, Loura (22 June 2016). "NASA's Restore-L Mission to Refuel Landsat 7, Demonstrate Technologies". NASA. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  5. ^ Gran, Rani (3 March 2022). "NASA's Robotic OSAM-1 Mission Completes its Critical Design Review". NASA. Retrieved 10 March 2022.