Norwegian legation in Stockholm

The Norwegian Legation in Stockholm played a significant role during the Second World War. Until 9 April 1940 the legation consisted of four persons, and at the end of the war about 1,100 persons were connected to the legation.[1] Refugee cases were among the legation's most central tasks.[2] In 1941 a Military office was established, and this was later split into separate offices for intelligence (XU related cases), and for Milorg related cases.[1]

Minister Jens Bull receives Swedish greetings at the legation on 17 May 1942.

ManagementEdit

The legation was led by minister Johan Wollebæk from 1921 until his death in October 1940.[3] In 1940 Jens Bull took over as chargé d'affaires, and recognized as minister by the Swedish authorities from 1942.[4] Government representatives in Stockholm during parts of the Second World War were Anders Frihagen and Johan Ludwig Mowinckel.[3]

Important monetary loans to the Norwegian home front was handled by contact between Frihagen and Mowinckel in Stockholm, and people like Tor Skjønsberg and Øystein Thommessen in Norway.[5]

Refugee OfficeEdit

During the Second World War, about 50,000 Norwegian refugees found their way to Sweden.[4] The refugees were received at Öreryd and later Kjesäter, and a number of camps were established. Many of the refugees were educated as police troops.[2] Annæus Schjødt led the refugee office from 1942 to 1943.[6]

From 1942 Harald Gram was leading the so-called Idrettskontoret, which organised courier traffic between Norway and Sweden.[7] Idrettskontoret was a blind for agent practice, among others for 2A agents. Annæus Schjødt's wife Hedevig Schjødt, a 2A agent like her husband, was active in Idrettskontoret as well.[6] However Idrettskontoret also organised courses in physical education, as an equivalent to the National Gymnastic School (now: the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences) which still operated in occupied Norway. The leader of the course was Sigurd Dahle, acting director of the National Gymnastic School from 1945 to 1947.[8]

Military OfficeEdit

Ragnvald Alfred Roscher Lund was a military attaché at the Legation from June to October 1940.[9] The Military Office was established in 1941. This office was later, in 1943, split into the sections Mi II and Mi IV, numbers corresponding to sections in the Norwegian High Command in London,[10] FO II (intelligence cases, with Roscher Lund as Head)[11] and FO IV (Milorg cases).[12] Starting in 1943 Mi II was headed by Major Ørnulf Dahl, who also was responsible for the Legation's contacts with the clandestine organisation XU. Part of the XU organisation was led from Stockholm, while part was led from Oslo and communicated directly with the Norwegian High Command in London.[13]

PublicationsEdit

The Press Office, led by press attaché Jens Schive,[14] issued the newspaper Norges-Nytt from 1941. Norges-Nytt had a circulation of up to 40,000 copies.[15] The Legation funded the underground newspaper Håndslag, edited by Eyvind Johnson, Torolf Elster and Willy Brandt, and distributed illegally in Norway.[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Barstad, Tor Arne (1995). "Stockholmslegasjonen". In Dahl; Hjeltnes; Nøkleby; Ringdal; Sørensen (eds.). Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 400. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
  2. ^ a b Grimnes, Ole Kristian (1995). "flyktningesamfunnet i Sverige". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 109. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 31 December 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  3. ^ a b Norby, Reginald (2005). "Johan Wollebæk". In Helle, Knut (ed.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Vol. 10. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  4. ^ a b Dæhlen, Kåre (2000). "Jens Bull". In Helle, Knut (ed.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Vol. 2. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  5. ^ Haukaas, Kaare (1969). "Thommessen, Øystein". In Jansen, Jonas; Anker, Øyvind; Bøe, Gunvald (eds.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Vol. 16 (1st ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. pp. 243–244.
  6. ^ a b Dahl, Hans Fredrik. "Annæus Schjødt D.E.". In Helle, Knut (ed.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  7. ^ Moland, Arnfinn (1995). "Gram, Harald". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 139. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  8. ^ Stene, Fridtjov (1970). "Utdanningen av kroppsøvingslærere i Norge. Et historisk oversyn". 100 år. Den Gymnastiske Centralskole 1870–1915, Statens gymnastikkskole 1915–1968, Norges idrettshøgskole 1968–1970 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. p. 9.
  9. ^ Nøkleby, Berit (1995). "Lund, Ragnvald Rosher". In Dahl; Hjeltnes; Nøkleby; Ringdal; Sørensen (eds.). Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. pp. 256–257. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 24 December 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  10. ^ Nøkleby, Berit (1995). "Forsvarets Overkommando, FO". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. pp. 114–115. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  11. ^ Nøkleby, Berit (1995). "Forsvarets Overkommandos 2. kontor, FO II". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 115. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  12. ^ Nøkleby, Berit (1995). "Forsvarets Overkommandos 4. kontor, FO IV i London". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 115. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  13. ^ Nøkleby, Berit (1995). "XU". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. pp. 453–454. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  14. ^ Barstad, Tor Arne (1995). "Schive, Jens". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. pp. 369–370. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  15. ^ Hjeltnes, Guri (1995). "Norges-Nytt". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 297. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  16. ^ Dahl, Hans Fredrik (1995). "Håndslag". Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. p. 191. ISBN 82-02-14138-9. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2009.

Coordinates: 59°20′02″N 18°06′26″E / 59.3338°N 18.1073°E / 59.3338; 18.1073