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Northeast Coast Campaign (1750)

The Northeast Coast Campaign (1750) occurred during Father Le Loutre's War from 11 September to December 1750. The Norridgewock as well as the Abanaki from St. Francois and Trois Riveire, Quebec raided British settlements along the Acadia/ New England border in present-day Maine.[1]

Contents

Historical ContextEdit

By the end of King George's War, there was a long history of the Wabanaki Confederacy and the Abanaki from Quebec attacking British settlements encroaching toward the border of Acadia, the Kennebec River.[2] October 28, 1748, at the end of King George's War, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq prevented John Gorham from landing to acquire an oath of allegiance. His rangers were fired upon killing three of the rangers and wounding three, while Gorham took two Mi'kmaq prisoner.[3][4] In response, the Governor of Canada indicated that, in response to British aggression, the native raids on the border may resume.[5][6] At this time Mi'kmaq were given arms at Quebec to attack Fort St. Georges.[7]

By unilaterally establishing Halifax, Nova Scotia, the Mi'kmaq believed the British were violating earlier treaties (1726), which were signed after Father Rale's War.[8] The Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia retaliated by attacking New England settlements along the coast of present-day Maine below the Kennebec River, the former border of Acadia. In 1750, the natives attacked Falmouth killing one on June 8, 1750. In July 1750, natives took seven prisoners captive at New Meadows.[9]

CampaignEdit

Wabanaki conducted the 1750 campaign against 10 settlements killing 2 and taking captive 24 people starting on 11 September.[10][11] Tarrantines were suspected of being involved on the raid on Fort Richmond. Wabanaki raided Richmond (Fort Richmond), Dresden, Swan Island,[12] Wikcasset, Sheepscot, Parker’s Island, Georgetown, Maquoit, Windham, Gorhamtown, and New Gloucester.[13][14][15]

On September 8, on Swan Island near Fort Richmond, 60 Norridgewock and St. Francis natives attacked two families who were in one dwelling, two were saved while 14 were taken captive.[16] Later the same day the natives began to attack the fort for three hours, which had seven soldiers defending it. As they withdrew that took one prisoner and burned crops.[17] On September 9, they attacked Wiscasset and Sheepscot, where they took two captives.[18] September 10, they took captive a man at Berwick.[19] On Sept 11, there is a report that natives attacked Fort Richmond for 2–3 days, killing cattle and taking off 12-13 cattle.[20] On Sept 21, natives attacked New Marblehead (Windham) and captured one prisoner.[21] By Sept. 26, along the border, natives captured 17 people on the border, wounded two and killed one.[22]

AftermathEdit

In the spring of 1750, the natives captured three boys at New Yarmouth.[23] On June 8, natives killed a man close to Falmouth. In July, natives took seven prisoners at New Meadows.[24] Toward the end of June, they again attacked Fort Richmond.[25] Two weeks later they took captive 6 men and killed 1.[26]

There was a Peace Treaty of 1752 signed August 3 at Fort St. Georges. The Mi'kmaq and the St. Francois natives were not present.[27]

The raids continued once the British started to establish forts along the Kennebec River in 1754. During the war, along the former border of Acadia, the Kennebec River, the British built Fort Halifax (Winslow), Fort Shirley (Dresden, formerly Frankfurt) and Fort Western (Augusta).[28][29]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Tod Scott. Mi'kmaw Armed Resistance to British Expansion in Northern New England (1676-1781). Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society Journal. Vol. 19, 2016. pp. 1-18
  2. ^ p. 227
  3. ^ https://archive.org/stream/selectionsfrompu00nova#page/n200/mode/1up
  4. ^ A Particular History of the Five Years French and Indian War in New England ... By Samuel Gardner Drake, William Shirlep. 174
  5. ^ Count de la Galissonniere, Governor of Canada, to Governor Mascarene, 15th January, 1749, p. 263-264; Governor Mascarene t oCount de la Galissonniere, 25th April, 1749, p. 366; Governor Shirley to Count de la Galissonniere, May 9, 1749. Selections from the public documents of the province of Nova Scotia. P. 370
  6. ^ https://archive.org/stream/selectionsfrompu00nova#page/n205/mode/1up
  7. ^ p. 172
  8. ^ Wicken, p. 181; Griffith, p. 390; Also see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  9. ^ Williamson, p.272.
  10. ^ Thayer, p. 192
  11. ^ CONTINUATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE PROVINCE OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY By GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT, p. 140-142
  12. ^ https://archive.org/stream/documentaryhisto12main#page/82/mode/2up
  13. ^ Williamson . The History of the State of Maine: P. 268 - 272
  14. ^ On 16 October 1749 there was peace treaty signed with some of the Eastern Indians (See Collections of the Maine Historical Society, Volume 4 p. 160)
  15. ^ https://archive.org/stream/documentaryhisto12main#page/80/mode/2up
  16. ^ Thayer. The Indian Administration of Justice: The Sequel to the Wiscasset Tragedy. Maine Historical Society. p.185
  17. ^ Thayer, p. 189
  18. ^ Thayer, p. 190
  19. ^ Thayer, p. 191
  20. ^ p. 84
  21. ^ p.89-90
  22. ^ p. 92
  23. ^ Thayer, p. 192
  24. ^ Williamson, p. 272
  25. ^ Thayer, p. 192
  26. ^ Thayer, p. 192
  27. ^ Williamson, p. 272
  28. ^ Attacks on these forts continued through Father Le Loutre's War (See Maine Historical Society).
  29. ^ Charles Morris had intelligence from Acadians that another Northeast Coast Campaign was planned for 1755 (See Charles Morris