Northeast Coast Campaign (1747)
The Northeast Coast Campaign (1747) was conducted by the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia against the New England settlements along the coast of present-day Maine below the Kennebec River, the former border of Acadia. during King George's War from July until September 1747. They attacked English settlements on the coast of present-day Maine between Berwick and St. Georges (Thomaston, Maine), within two months there were 11 raids - every town on the frontier had been attacked. Casco (also known as Falmouth and Portland) was the principal settlement.
|Northeast Coast Campaign (1747)|
|Part of King George's War|
Commander Samuel Waldo
|Commanders and leaders|
Commander Samuel Waldo (Falmouth) |
Captain Jonathan Williamson
|Casualties and losses|
|approximately 30 persons killed or captured||unknown|
After the two attacks on Annapolis Royal in 1744, Governor William Shirley put a bounty on the Passamaquoddy, Mi’kmaq and Maliseet on Oct 20. The following year, during the Campaign, on August 23, 1745, Shirley declared war against the rest of the Wabanaki Confederacy – the Penobscot and Kennebec tribes. In response to the New England expedition against Louisbourg which finished in June 1745, the Wabanaki retaliated by attacking the New England border. New England braced itself for such an attack by appointing a provisional force of 450 to defend the frontier. After the attacks began they increased the number of soldiers by 175 men. Massachusetts established forts along the border with Acadia: Fort George at Brunswick (1715), St. George's Fort at Thomaston (1720), and Fort Richmond (1721) at Richmond. Fort Frederick was established at Pemaquid (Bristol, Maine).
A militia of 50 natives raided Falmouth on April 21, killing cattle and attacking Mr. Frost’s family, taking captive his wife and six children. Despite sending 26 men after then under Captain IIsley, they were unable to catch the native and their prisoners.
Capt. Jordan’s company of 30 was posted from Falmouth to Topsham, leaving the town defenseless. The natives killed two women and a man. Crossing the Androscoggin in canoe, natives killed two men and wounded the third, one woman escaped.
At Fort Frederick in early September a company of 60 natives attacked. Killing five guards and then attacked for two hours and then withdrew. At Fort Georges, natives tried, unsuccessfully, to dig a tunnel into the fort.
Natives also killed a number of British at Fort St. Georges in the fall of 1748.
- Folsom, p. 242
- Scott, Tod (2016). "Mi'kmaw Armed Resistance to British Expansion in Northern New England (1676–1761)". Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society. 19: 1–18.
- Williamson (1832), p. 240.
- Williamson (1832), pp. 217-218.
- Williamson (1832), p. 239.
- Fort George replaced Fort Andros which was built during King William's War (1688).
- Williamson (1832), pp. 88, 97.
- Williamson (1832), p. 251.
- Williamson (1832), p. 252.
- Brodhead, John Romeyn (1858). Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York. Vol. 10. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co. p. 127.
- Williamson (1832), p. 254.
- Samuel Gardner Drake (1841). Tragedies of the wilderness, or True and authentic narratives of captives who have been carried away by the Indians from the various frontier settlements of the United States, from the earliest to the present time... pp. 166–172.
- Brodhead, John Romeyn (1858). Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York. Vol. 10. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co. pp. 160, 163, 164, 172, 174.
- Clayton, W.W. (1880). History of York County, Maine: with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck.
- Shirley, William (1912). Correspondence of William Shirley: Governor of Massachusetts and Military Commander in America, 1731-1760. New York: Macmillan Co.
- Folsom, George (1830). History of Saco and Biddeford: with Notices of Other Early Settlements, ... Saco: A.C. Putnam. p. 203.
- Willis, William (1865). The History of Portland, from 1632 to 1864: With a Notice of Previous Settlements, Colonial Grants, and Changes of Government in Maine. Portland, Maine: Bailey & Noyes.
- Williamson, William D. (1832). The History of the State of Maine: From Its First Discovery, 1602, to the Separation, A. D. 1820, Inclusive. Vol. II. Hallowell, Maine: Glazier, Masters & Company.
- Johnson, Michael; Smith, Jonathan (2006). Indian Tribes of the New England Frontier. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-937-0. OCLC 255490222.