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The New York Aquarium is the oldest continually operating aquarium in the United States, having opened in Castle Garden in Battery Park, Manhattan in 1896. Since 1957, it has been located on the Riegelmann Boardwalk in Coney Island, Brooklyn. The aquarium is operated by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) as part of its integrated system of four zoos and one aquarium, most notably the Bronx Zoo. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).

New York Aquarium
New York Aquarium by David Shankbone.jpg
South wall
Date openedDecember 10, 1896
Location602 Surf Avenue, Brooklyn, NY, 11224
United States
Coordinates40°34′27″N 73°58′30″W / 40.574292°N 73.975116°W / 40.574292; -73.975116Coordinates: 40°34′27″N 73°58′30″W / 40.574292°N 73.975116°W / 40.574292; -73.975116
Land area14 acres (5.7 ha)
MembershipsAZA[1]
Public transit accessSubway: "F" train"F" express train​​"Q" train at West Eighth Street – New York Aquarium
Bus: B36
Websitewww.nyaquarium.com

As part of WCS, the aquarium's mission is to save wildlife and wild places worldwide through science, conservation action, education, and inspiring people to value nature.

The facility occupies 14 acres and boasts 266 species of aquatic wildlife. Its mission is to raise public awareness about issues facing the ocean and its inhabitants with special exhibits, public events and research. The New York Seascape program, based out of the aquarium, is WCS’s local conservation program designed to restore healthy populations of marine species and protect New York waters, which are vital to the area’s economic and cultural vitality.

HistoryEdit

Battery Park locationEdit

 
The aquarium used to be housed in Castle Clinton (left) in Battery Park (image before 1923)

The New York Aquarium opened on December 10, 1896, at Castle Garden in Battery Park. Its first director was Tarleton Hoffman Bean (1895–1898). He was also part of creating many more similar wild life organizations/aquariums/protected areas. On October 31, 1902, the Aquarium was adopted into the care of what was then the New York Zoological Society. At the time, the Aquarium housed only 150 specimens of wildlife. Over time, its most famous director, the distinguished zoologist Charles Haskins Townsend, enlarged the collections considerably, and the Aquarium attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. A towering figure in New York Zoological Society and New York Aquarium history, Townsend served as the Aquarium's director for 30 years. Townsend's work with whaling bans, Galápagos tortoise conservation and the development of aquarium technology are on par with the work of William Temple Hornaday.[2]

Early in October 1941, the Aquarium at Battery Park was controversially closed based on claims of NYC Parks Commissioner Robert Moses that the proposed construction of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel from Lower Manhattan to Brooklyn might undermine Castle Clinton's foundation. Many of the Aquarium’s sea creatures were temporarily housed at the Bronx Zoo until the new aquarium was built after World War II.

Brooklyn locationEdit

On June 6, 1957, the Aquarium opened at its new location in Coney Island, Brooklyn. The new site of the New York Aquarium is the home of the WCS New York Seascape program – the society’s research and conservation program focusing on nearby rivers, harbor, and ocean from Cape May, New Jersey to Montauk, Long Island.[3]

A notable director of the Aquarium was James Arthur Oliver, who was director from 1970 until 1976. Oliver also held directorships at the Bronx Zoo and the American Museum of Natural History during his career - the only person to have been director of all three institutions. The aquarium kept an orca briefly in 1968 and a narwhal in 1969. Both reportedly died of possible pneumonia.[4][5] The aquarium's beluga whales were transferred to the Georgia Aquarium in 2007 as part of a breeding program.[6] In September 2011, the aquarium named its new electric eel Wattson,[7] and in March 2012, it launched a sea horse breeding program.[8]

In October 2006, the New York Aquarium announced the finalists to a competition to develop a more inviting and visually prominent exterior for the aquarium.[9] In March 2007, the winning design by firms WRT and Cloud 9 was selected, which featured an enclosure resembling a whale over the aquarium.[10][11] However, in March 2008, that concept was scrapped due to concerns over the cost of the design and the practicality of constructing future exhibits under the enclosure.[12] Instead, plans for a new exhibit based on sharks were announced.[13] The massive 784,000-US-gallon (2,970,000 l), 57,000-square-foot (5,300 m2) exhibition, Ocean Wonders: Sharks!, was originally scheduled to break ground in November 2012 and open in 2015.[14] However, the New York Aquarium was significantly damaged by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, which severely flooded the facility and shut down power. A small group of WCS staff who remained onsite during the hurricane were able to save 90 percent of the animals in the collection.[15] As a result, construction on the exhibit was delayed.[16] Ocean Wonders: Sharks! ultimately broke ground in January 2014.[17] The exhibit opened on June 30, 2018, becoming the first major exhibit at the New York Aquarium to open after Hurricane Sandy.[17][18][19]

ExhibitsEdit

As of 2018, the New York Aquarium consists of five exhibits: Aquatheater; Conservation Hall; Sea Cliffs; Sharks, Rays & Turtles; and Ocean Wonders: Sharks.[20]

The original Bathysphere, a deep-sea submersible that made historic journeys underwater in the 1930s, is on display at the aquarium.[21]

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Currently Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. AZA. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  2. ^ "Castle Clinton". History & Culture. National Park Service. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  3. ^ "A New New York Aquarium". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
  4. ^ "NY Whale Dies in Pool". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  5. ^ "Aquarium's Narwhal Is Dead". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  6. ^ Belugas sent to breed Archived January 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "The Neighborhood News". New York. September 26, 2011. p. 20.
  8. ^ "The Neighborhood News". New York. March 18, 2012.
  9. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (October 6, 2006). "From 3 Finalists in Aquarium's Redesign, Swoops, Swirls and Great Water Views". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  10. ^ Chung, Jen. "NY Aquarium Goes for "Whale" of a Design". Gothamist. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  11. ^ "Enric Ruiz-Geli | Projects in progress : New York Aquarium". www.ruiz-geli.com. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  12. ^ Mindlin, Alex (March 23, 2008). "300,000 Gallons of 'Jaws'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  13. ^ Robert (March 3, 2008). "Swimming with Sharks: $67M Coney 'Fantasy Land'". Curbed NY. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  14. ^ Plitt, Amy (June 29, 2018). "New York Aquarium's new, kinetic shark pavilion opens at Coney Island". Curbed NY. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  15. ^ "New York Aquarium damaged by Hurricane Sandy". New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  16. ^ Stapinski, Helene (May 5, 2017). "Rebuilding the New York Aquarium After Hurricane Sandy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  17. ^ a b "New York Aquarium To Debut New Sharks Exhibit". June 8, 2018. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  18. ^ Schneider, Katy (June 28, 2018). "What to Know About the New York Aquarium's New Shark Building". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  19. ^ Hodgson, Sam (June 28, 2018). "Coney Island's Newest Wonder: Sharkitecture!". New York Times official website. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  20. ^ https://nyaquarium.com/exhibits. Retrieved September 22, 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ Poffenberger, Leah (August–September 2018). "This Month in Physics History". American Physical Society. Retrieved October 3, 2018.

External linksEdit