New Towns Acts

  (Redirected from New Towns Act 1946)

The New Towns Acts were a series of Acts of Parliament to found new settlements or to expand substantially existing ones, to establish Development Corporations to deliver them, and to create a Commission to wind up the Corporations and take over their assets and liabilities. Of these, the more substantive acts were the New Towns Act 1946 and the Town Development Act 1952.

New Towns were developed in three generations.

  • The first generation set up in the late 1940s concentrated predominantly on housing development on greenbelt sites with little provision for cars; eight were in a ring around London.
  • The second generation in the early 1960s included a wider mix of uses and used more innovative architecture.
  • The third generation towns were larger; they included Milton Keynes (designated in 1965) and Central Lancashire, currently the last (designated in 1970). These later new towns tended to be designed around car travel.[1]

By 2002, about 2 million people were housed in the New Towns, in about 500,000 homes.[1]

BackgroundEdit

The 1944, Abercrombie Plan for London proposed eight new towns within 50 miles (80 km) of London for up to 500,000 people from inner London. Similar recommendations were made for other major conurbations including Manchester and Birmingham. The 1945 Attlee Government set up a New Towns Commission[2] to formally consider how best to repair and rebuild urban communities ravaged in World War II.

In 1945, John Reith, 1st Baron Reith was appointed as chair of the New Towns Commission. The commission concluded that there was a need to construct new towns using the instrument of development corporations supported by central government. The New Towns Act 1946 cemented this vision in 1946 and New Towns were born.

Reith CommissionEdit

The Reith Commission recommended that:

  • the new town developments should have a population of up to 60,000
  • they should be built as far as possible on greenfield sites
  • there should be predominantly single family housing at low density
  • the homes had to be organised in neighbourhoods around a primary school and nursery schools, a pub and shops selling staple foods
  • there should be a balance of housing and jobs [3]

New Towns Act 1946Edit

An Act to provide for the creation of new towns by means of development corporations, and for purposes connected therewith.[4]

The New Towns Act 1946 was the act that put into law the conclusions of the New Towns Commission. ") The act authorised the government to designate areas as new towns, and passing development control functions to a New Town Development Corporation. Several new towns were created in the years following its passing. The Act was replaced by the New Towns Act 1965 and, later, the New Towns Act 1981.

New Town Development CorporationsEdit

The act set up Development Corporations which were responsible for the management, design and development of New Towns. These were Public Corporations financed by the Government through Treasury loans. The boards were appointed by Central Government; importantly, they were given planning and compulsory purchase order powers.

Their first task was to draw up development frameworks for a mix of housing, offices, industrial development, transport infrastructure and open space.[5]

Town Development Act 1952Edit

Although not formally a "New Towns Act", the Town Development Act uses the powers established by the 1946 Act to expand existing towns to achieve the same or similar purposes.[6][7] The introduction to the act gives its purpose: "An Act to encourage town development in county districts for the relief of congestion or over-population elsewhere, and for related purposes, [etc]".[8] It was this act that enabled London County Council to establish its overspill estates as far away as Cornwall and Northamptonshire. By 1973, over 40 new and expanded towns were described in Parliament as "London overspill".[9]

New Towns Acts 1952, 1953, 1955, 1958, 1964, 1966 and 1969Edit

These were brief acts to increase the maximum borrowings permitted to fund the developments.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

New Towns Act 1959Edit

An Act to make, as respects England and Wales, new provision in place of section fifteen of the New Towns Act, 1946, as to the disposal of the undertakings of development corporations and other matters arising when a development corporation has achieved or substantially achieved the purposes for which it is established; to amend the law relating to development corporations by increasing the limit on the advances which may be made to them under sub section (1) of section twelve of that Act, by providing for housing subsidies to be wholly or partly withheld in respect of dwellings disposed of by them, and by authorising them to make contributions towards the provision of amenities; and for purposes connected with the matters aforesaid.[17]

The New Towns Act 1959 established the Commission for New Towns.[a] Under this Act, "the Minister of Housing and Local Government was authorised to set up a Commission on New Towns to take over the functions of the development corporations whose purposes had, in his opinion, been achieved or substantially achieved".[18]

New Towns Act 1965Edit

It may startle some political economists to talk of commencing the building of new cities ... planned as cities from their first foundation, and not mere small towns and villages. ... A time will arrive when something of this sort must be done ... England cannot escape from the alternative of new city building.

T. J. Maslen, 1843[19]

The New Towns Act 1965 substantially rewrote and consolidated the 1946 act.[20] While continuing the authority to establish further new towns, the act gives the Commission for the New Towns the task of "taking over, holding, managing and turning to account the property previously vested in the development corporation for a new town".[20]: 1314 

Several new towns were created in the years following its passing. Its most immediate use was the designation of Milton Keynes in 1967. The 1965 act replaced the 1946 act and was replaced in turn by the 1981 act.

New Towns Act (Northern Ireland) 1965Edit

Since most of the acts did not apply to Northern Ireland (and some not to Scotland), an equivalent act was passed in 1965 by the Parliament of Northern Ireland.[21] Following the act, Craigavon was designated in July 1965.[22]

New Towns (Scotland) Act 1968Edit

The New Towns (Scotland) Act 1968 established equivalent legal powers in Scotland.[23]

New Towns Acts 1971, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982 and 1987Edit

Few of these Acts are available online, so their purpose remains to be identified.[citation needed] The 1982 act permits an increase in authorised borrowing.[24]

New Towns (Amendment) Act 1976Edit

Among other functions, this act provided for "the interest of the Commission for the New Towns and [the] development corporations in dwellings and of any associated property, rights, liabilities and obligations" to be transferred to district councils.[25]

New Towns (Scotland) Act 1977Edit

This act amended the Scotland act of 1968, notably to include the option to cancel a new town proposal.[26]

New Towns Act 1981Edit

The New Towns Act 1981 is an "Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to new towns and connected matters, being (except for section 43 of the New Towns Act 1965 and sections 126 and 127 of the Local Government, Planning and Land Act 1980 and certain related provisions) enactments which apply only to England and Wales."[27]

Enterprise and New Towns (Scotland) Act 1990Edit

This act replaced the Scottish Development Agency and the Highlands and Islands Development Board with Scottish Enterprise and Highlands and Islands Enterprise, and authorised development of further new towns in Scotland.[28]

New Towns (Amendment) Act 1994Edit

This act establishes sub-committees of the Commission for New Towns, with authority to act on matters proper to them.[29]

TownsEdit

The following towns were created under various New Towns Acts:

EnglandEdit

Name County[b] Year designated Built‑up area
population[c]
Note
Basildon Essex 1949 144,859[30] Population is for Basildon and Wickford built-up area
Basingstoke Hampshire 1961 107,642[31] London overspill expansion, not New Towns Act
Bracknell Berkshire 1949 77,256[32]
Central Lancashire Lancashire 1970 313,332[33] Development of Preston, Leyland and Chorley urban area, using New Towns Act powers.
Corby Northamptonshire 1950 56,810[34]
Crawley Sussex 1947 180,508[35] Existing town substantially expanded. Urban area includes Gatwick Airport and Horley
Harlow Essex 1947 82,059[36]
Hatfield Hertfordshire 1948 41,677[37] Urban area includes Colney Heath and Wenham Green
Hemel Hempstead Hertfordshire 1947 94,932[38] Built-up area includes Kings Langley
Milton Keynes Buckinghamshire 1967 229,941[39] Existing towns and villages substantially expanded and infilled. Urban area now includes Newport Pagnell and Woburn Sands, which are outside the original designated area.
Newton Aycliffe County Durham 1947 25,964[40]
Northampton Northamptonshire 1968 215,963[41] Existing town significantly expanded
Peterborough Northamptonshire,
Cambridgeshire[d]
1967 163,379[42] Existing city substantially expanded
Peterlee County Durham 1948 27,871[43]
Redditch Worcestershire 1964 82,253[44] Existing town substantially expanded
Runcorn Cheshire 1963 62,872[45]
Skelmersdale Lancashire 1961 34,455[46]
Stevenage Hertfordshire 1946 90,232[47]
Swindon Wiltshire 1952 185,609[48] Existing town substantially expanded
Telford Shropshire 1963 and 1968 147,980[49] Existing towns substantially expanded and infilled.
Warrington Lancashire 1968 165,456[50] Existing town substantially expanded
Washington Tyne and Wear 1964 67,085[51]

ScotlandEdit

Name County[b] Year designated Built‑up area
population[c]
Note
Cumbernauld North Lanarkshire 1955 52,270[52]
East Kilbride South Lanarkshire 1947 74,395[52]
Glenrothes Fife 1948 39,277[52]
Irvine North Ayrshire 1966 33,698[52] Ancient Royal Burgh, substantially expanded
Livingston West Lothian 1962 56,269[52]

WalesEdit

Name County[b] Year designated Built‑up area
population[c]
Note
Cwmbran Gwent 1949 46,915[53] Now part of the Newport built-up area
Newtown Powys 1967 11,357[54] Substantial expansion of existing town

Northern IrelandEdit

Name County[b] Year designated Built‑up area
population[c]
Note
Craigavon Armagh 1965 64,193[55] Intended as a linear town to encompass Portadown and Lisburn, but has not yet done so. The population figure is for this statistical area and thus may be misleading.
Antrim Antrim 1966 25,353[56] Expansion of an existing town
Ballymena Antrim 1967 29,467[57] Expansion of existing town and nearby villages
Derry Londonderry 1969 91,602[58] Expansion of an existing city

See alsoEdit

Similar spellingEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Not to be confused with the 1945 New Towns Commission
  2. ^ a b c d Ceremonial county
  3. ^ a b c d As at 2011 Census
  4. ^ reallocated in 1974

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Regions Nineteenth Report 2002, para.22.
  2. ^ Regions Nineteenth Report 2002, para.5.
  3. ^ Regions Nineteenth Report 2002, para.6.
  4. ^ "New Towns Act 1946" (PDF). HMSO. 1 August 1946. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  5. ^ Regions Nineteenth Report 2002, para.21.
  6. ^ G. C. Dickinson (April 1962). "Overspill and Town Development: In England and Wales, 1945-1971". The Town Planning Review. 33 (1): 49–62. doi:10.3828/tpr.33.1.3x8040m7345q21p2. JSTOR 40102328.
  7. ^ H. R. Parker (January 1956). "A Change in Housing Policy". The Town Planning Review. 26 (4): 211–14. doi:10.3828/tpr.26.4.k52524t741712578. JSTOR 40101578.
  8. ^ "Town Development Act 1952", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 1 August 1952, 1952 c. 54, retrieved 25 November 2021
  9. ^ "London Overspill (vol 850 cc445-6)". Hansard. 16 February 1973. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  10. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1952. HMSO. 1952. p. 598.
  11. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1953. HMSO. 1953. p. 459.
  12. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1955. HMSO. 1955. p. 2.
  13. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1958. HMSO. 1959. p. 59.
  14. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures 1964. HMSO. 1965. p. 24.
  15. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1966. HMSO. 1966. p. 783.
  16. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1969. HMSO. 1969. p. 9.
  17. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures 1959. HMSO. 1960. p. 1076.
  18. ^ "Records of the New Towns Division". National Archives. 1948–2008.
  19. ^ Maslen, T. J. (1843). Suggestions for the improvement of Our Towns and Houses. London: Smith, Elder. (Quoted in Walter L Crease, The search for Environment, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1966, p319).
  20. ^ a b The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1965. 2. HMSO. 5 August 1965. p. 1283.
  21. ^ "New Towns Act (Northern Ireland) 1965". Government of Northern Ireland. 24 June 1965. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  22. ^ "No. 2317". The Belfast Gazette. 6 August 1965. p. 274.
  23. ^ The Public General Acts and Church Assembly Measures of 1968. HMSO. 1968. p. 261.
  24. ^ "New Towns Act 1982", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 25 February 1982, 1982 c. 7, retrieved 25 November 2021
  25. ^ "New Towns (Amendment) Act 1976 | 1976 CHAPTER 68". Vlex. 15 November 1976. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  26. ^ "New Towns (Scotland) Act 1977", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 26 May 1977, 1977 c. 16, retrieved 25 November 2021
  27. ^ "New Towns Act 1981", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 30 October 1981, 1981 c. 64, retrieved 25 November 2021
  28. ^ "Enterprise and New Towns (Scotland) Act 1990", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 26 July 1990, 1990 c. 35, retrieved 25 November 2021
  29. ^ "New Towns (Amendment) Act 1994", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 24 March 1994, 1994 c. 5, retrieved 25 November 2021
  30. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Basildon BUA (E34004645)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  31. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Basingstoke BUA (E34005009)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  32. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Bracknell BUSD (E35001242)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  33. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Preston BUA (E34005039)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  34. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Corby BUA (E34004788)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  35. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Crawley BUA (E34004788)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  36. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Harlow BUSD (E35001348)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  37. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Crawley BUA (E34004803)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  38. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Hemel Hempstead BUSD (E35001447)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  39. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Milton Keynes BUA (E34005056)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  40. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Newton Aycliffe BUA (E34002689)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  41. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Northampton BUA (E34004611)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  42. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Peterborough BUA (E34004715)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  43. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Peterlee BUA (E35001258)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  44. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Redditch BUA (E34005057)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  45. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Runcorn BUA (E34004843)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  46. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Skelmersdale BUSD (E35001425)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  47. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Stevenage BUA (E34004682)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  48. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Swindon BUA (E34004828)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  49. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Telford BUA (E34004622)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  50. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Warrington BUA (E34004622)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics.
  51. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Washington BUSD (E35001427)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  52. ^ a b c d e "Find out about an area". Scotland's Census. Scottish Government. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  53. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Cwmbran BUSD (W38000140)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  54. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Newtown BUA (W37000100)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  55. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM: Countries and Major Cities | Craigavon". citypopulation.de.
  56. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM: Countries and Major Cities | Antrim". citypopulation.de.
  57. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM: Countries and Major Cities | Ballymena". citypopulation.de.
  58. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM: Countries and Major Cities | Derry". citypopulation.de.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit