New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) was a name given by the Roman Emperor Constantine to his new imperial capital on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait. The city had been most commonly known as Byzantium prior to his rededication, and as Constantinople thereafter, until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 A.D., when it was later renamed Istanbul.
Constantine essentially rebuilt the city on a monumental scale from 326 to 330, partly modeling it after Rome. Names of this period included ἡ Νέα, δευτέρα Ῥώμη, "the New, second Rome"; Ἄλμα Ῥώμα, "Alma Roma"; Βυζαντιάς Ῥώμη, "Byzantine Rome"; ἑῴα Ῥώμη, "Eastern Rome"; and Roma Constantinopolitana.:354
The term "New Rome" lent itself to East–West polemics, especially in the context of the Great Schism, when it was used by the Eastern Orthodox Greek writers to stress the rivalry with the Western Catholic Rome. In modern times, "New Rome" remains part of the official title of the Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch of that city.
- Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). "The Names of Constantinople". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 78: 347–67. doi:10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
- The 5th-century church historian Socrates of Constantinople writes in his Historia Ecclesiastica, 1:16 (c. 439) that the emperor named the city "Constantinople" while decreeing that it be designated a "second Rome" (‘Κωνσταντινούπολιν’ μετονομάσας, χρηματίζειν ‘δευτέραν Ῥώμην’ νόμῳ ἐκύρωσεν).
- Bartholomew, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch