New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) has often been used to describe the city founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD as his new imperial capital at the city on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait, then known as Byzantium, which he enlarged and named after himself as Constantinople. 'New Rome' however, was never an official title; it was a description that was used in literary and rhetorical contexts, and does not appear in any official document as the name of the city. The city is now known as Istanbul.
Constantine (who rarely visited Rome, and concentrated most of his efforts on the eastern Roman empire, essentially rebuilt the city on a monumental scale, partly modelled after Rome. Literary descriptions of this period included ἡ Νέα, δευτέρα Ῥώμη, "the New, second Rome"; Alma Roma, Ἄλμα Ῥώμα; Βυζαντιάς Ῥώμη, "Byzantine Rome"; ἑῴα Ῥώμη, "Eastern Rome"; and Roma Constantinopolitana.:354
The term New Rome lent itself to East–West polemics, especially in the context of the Great Schism, when it was used by the Eastern Orthodox Greek writers to stress the rivalry with the Western Catholic Rome. New Rome is still part of the official title of the Patriarch of Constantinople–New Rome.
- The 5th-century church historian Socrates of Constantinople writes in his Historia Ecclesiastica, 1:16 (c. 439) that the emperor named the city "Constantinople" while decreeing that it be be styled as a "second Rome" (‘Κωνσταντινούπολιν’ μετονομάσας, χρηματίζειν ‘δευτέραν Ῥώμην’ νόμῳ ἐκύρωσεν).
- Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). "The Names of Constantinople". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 78: 347–67. doi:10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
- Bartholomew, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch
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