Natural regions of Venezuela

Because of its natural structure, Venezuela can be divided into eight very distinct natural regions. In the evaluation of a natural region, the human element is not present. The natural region groups of Venezuela formed as a consequence of the association of geo-physical elements such as: geological constitution, relief, climate, hydrography, vegetation, soils, among others.[1]

Natural Regions of Venezuela

Percentage area of Venezuelan natural regions

  Guayana (48.22%)
  Los Llanos (26.61%)
  Sistema Coriano (5.75%)
  Andes (5.16%)
  Orinoco Delta (4.76%)
  Maracaibo Basin (4.02%)
  Insular (0.14%)

The regional groups that make up the Venezuelan territory are:[2]

Andean RegionEdit

The Venezuelan Andean system represents the terminal bifurcation of the Cordillera Oriental de Colombia, which in Venezuelan territory consists of two mountainous branches: the Sierra de Perija, smaller, slightly displaced from southwest to northeast with 7,151 km2 in Venezuela; and a larger, frankly oriented Southwest to northeast with about 40,172 km2, the Cordillera de Mérida, commonly known as the proper Venezuelan Andes.[3] The highest point in Venezuela is located in this natural region.[4]

It is divided in two sections:

Cordillera de La Costa RegionEdit

Is a mountain range system, that runs along the central and eastern portions of Venezuela's northern coast. The range is a northeastern extension of the Andes, and is also known as the Maritime Andes. The Coastal Range actually consists of two parallel ranges, which run east and west along the coast of the Caribbean Sea. The Cojedes River separates the western end of Coastal Range from the Cordillera de Mérida to the southeast. The range is divided into eastern and western sections by the wide bay between Cape Codera and Cumaná.

Guayana RegionEdit

is a large massif of approximately 441,921 km2 of extension, equivalent to 48.2% of the total continental territory of the country.[5] Its limits by the north and east is formed by the route of the rivers Orinoco, Atabapo and Negro and by the south the borders with Brazil. Th region occupies almost half of meridional territory of Venezuela.

Insular RegionEdit

It comprises all of the nation's islands, and is formed by the state of Nueva Esparta and the Federal Dependencies.

Los Llanos RegionEdit

Is a large central depression very flat in a vast natural region of approximately 243,8692 of extension, equivalent to 26.61% of the total continental territory of the country.

Maracaibo Basin RegionEdit

Is a foreland basin, found in the northwestern corner of Venezuela in South America. Covering over 35,000 square km, it is a hydrocarbon-rich region that has produced over 30 billion bbl of oil with an estimated 44 billion bbl yet to be recovered. The basin is characterized by a large shallow tidal estuary, Lake Maracaibo, located near its center.

Orinoco Delta RegionEdit

Is fan-shaped river delta, formed by the Orinoco River as it splits into numerous distributaries, called caños, which meander through the delta on their way to the sea. The main distributary is called the Rio Grande, which empties south-southeast through the southern portion of the delta, and the second major distributary is Caño Manamo, which runs northward along the western edge of the delta.

Lara-Falcón Highlands RegionEdit

Is the hilly and semi-mountainous area in northwest Venezuela. It consists mostly of east-west running ridges, with the exception of the Sierra de Siruma or Empalado which run north-south. The coastal plain of the region contains Venezuela's only desert, the Médanos de Coro (the Coro Dunes), on the Paraguaná Peninsula.


  1. ^ Imagen de Venezuela: una visión espacial (in Spanish). Caracas, Venezuela: Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. 1992. ISBN 980-259-475-X.
  2. ^ Vargas Ponce, José; García, Pablo Emilio. Geografía: 9º Educación Básica (in Spanish). Ed. Romor. p. 45. ISBN 980-6010-67-1.
  3. ^ Vivas, Leonel (2012). Geotemas (in Spanish). San Cristobal, Venezuela: Fondo Editorial "Simón Rodriguez". ISBN 978-980-6838-57-4.
  4. ^ Pérez et al (Sep. 2005): "Alturas del Pico Bolívar y otras cimas andinas venezolanas a partir de observaciones Gps." INCI v.30, n.4, Caracas sep. 2005. Retrieved 2012-09-27. (in Spanish)
  5. ^ Vargas Ponce, José; García, Pablo Emilio. Geografía: 9º Educación Básica (in Spanish). Ed. Romor. ISBN 980-6010-67-1.