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Native Community Lands (Spanish: Tierra Comunitaria de Origen, acronym: TCO; also translated as Communal Lands of Origin), according to Bolivian law, are territories held by indigenous people through collective title. The creation of these territories has been a major goal of Bolivian indigenous movements and a political initiative pursued by both neoliberal and indigenous-identified national governments. TCOs are being included under the Indigenous Originary Campesino Autonomy regime. As of June 2009, 60 TCOs had been proposed in the lowlands, of which 12 had completed titling, and 143 had been proposed in the highlands, of which 72 had final titles.[1] More than 16.8 million hectares have been incorporated within Native Community Lands as of December 2009,[2] more than 15% of Bolivia's land area.

Titling of indigenous territories was propelled by the March for Territory and Dignity in July and August 1990, organized by the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of the Bolivian East (CIDOB). This march demanded the recognition of four indigenous territories, which was granted through Supreme Decrees issued on 24 September 1990. State recognition was formalized through the 1993 Agrarian Reform Law, which authorized community land ownership and formalized Native Community Lands as the vehicle for this ownership. Responsibility for verifying and awarding title fell to the National Institute of Agrarian Reform.[3] In the 1994 revision of the Constitution, indigenous rights to exercise "social, economic, and cultural rights" through Native Community Lands were recognized in Article 171.[4] In the 2009 Constitution, Native Community Lands reappear as Indigenous Originary Campesino Territories in Article 403.[5] A study by the Fundación Tierra found that while the Morales government has significantly advanced titling of Native Community Lands, it has resisted ensuring the constitution rights of TCO residents over the management of their territories and resources.[6]

TCO Location Size
Date Established Established by Indigenous Peoples Previous Status
Sirionó Indigenous Territory 52,408.71 ha[7] 24 September 1990[8] Supreme Decree 22609 Sirionó
Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory Cochabamba/Beni Department border 1,372,180 ha 24 September 1990[8] Supreme Decree 22610 Trinitario Mojeño, Yuracaré, Chimán National Park (since 1965)
Multiethnic Indigenous Territory I Beni 365,483.26 ha[7] 24 September 1990[8] Supreme Decree 22611 Trinitario Mojeño, Ignaciano Mojeño, Movima, Yuracaré, Tsimané
Chimán Indigenous Territory I Beni 337,360.44 ha[7] 24 September 1990[8] Supreme Decree 22611 Tsimané
Pilón Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Communal Lands Yungas region, northern La Paz Department and Beni 400,000 ha 9 April 1992[8] Supreme Decree 23110 Mosetén, Tsimané, Tacana Biosphere Reserve (since 1977)
Chayantaka Native Community Lands north Potosí 36,366.79 July 2005[9] INRA titling completed Chayantaka ayllu
Lomerío Chiquitano Indigenous Territory 259,188 9 April 1992
June 2006
Supreme Decree 23112
INRA Titling Complete
Monte Verde Chiquitano Indigenous Territory Ñuflo de Chávez Province, Santa Cruz 947,440.8 3 July 2007 Titling completed and awarded Chiquitano
Araona Indigenous Territory 9 April 1992[8] Supreme Decree 23108
Yuki-Ichilo River Native Community Lands Cochabamba 9 April 1992
April 1997
Supreme Decree 23111[8]
INRA Title RTIT00-000006[10]
Yuki, Yuracaré, Trinitario, Movima
Yuracaré Native Community Lands Cochabamba 241,170.5 Yuracaré
Avatiri Ingre Native Community Lands Chuquisaca Guaraní
Avatiri Huacareta Native Community Lands Chuquisaca Guaraní
Avatiri Ingre Native Community Lands Chuquisaca Guaraní
Machareti-Ñancaroinza-Carandayti Native Community Lands Chuquisaca Guaraní
Itikaraparirenda Native Community Lands Chuquisaca Guaraní
Alto Parapetí Native Community Lands Santa Cruz Guaraní Ranches with Guaraní in conditions of servitude[11]
Nor Lípez Native Community Lands Nor Lípez Province, Potosí 2,000,291 19 April 2011 INRA titling completed Central Única Provincial de Comunidades Originarias de Nor Lípez[12]
Jatun Ayllu-Juchuy Ayllu-Chaupi Ayllu Native Community Lands Sur Lípez Province, Potosí 1,557,532 19 April 2011 INRA titling completed Jatun Ayllu, Juchuy Ayllu, Chaupi Ayllu indigenous communities[12]
Enrique Baldivieso Native Community Lands Enrique Baldivieso Province, Potosí 227,003 19 April 2011 INRA titling completed Central Única de la Provincia de Comunidades Originarias Enrique Baldivieso[12]


  1. ^ Albó, Xavier; Carlos Romero (2009). Autonomías Indígenas en la realidad boliviana y su nueva Constitución (PDF). La Paz: Vicepresidencia del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. p. 32.
  2. ^ 16,804,907 hectares had been titled as of December 2009; 5,762,058 of these by 2005, and 11,042,849 during the first term of President Evo Morales. DANIDA (2010). The Rights of Indigenous Peoples: The Cooperation Between Denmark and Bolivia (2005-2009). Copenhagen: International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs. p. 45. Retrieved 2011-07-21.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ Beltrán, Javier (2000). Indigenous and traditional peoples and protected areas: principles, guidelines and case studies. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. ISBN 978-2-8317-0547-7. Page unclear, see search for "INRA".
  4. ^ Janssens, Maddy (2010-11-01). The Sustainability of Cultural Diversity: Nations, Cities and Organizations. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-84980-289-5.
  5. ^ Albó, Xavier; Carlos Romero (2009). Autonomías Indígenas en la realidad boliviana y su nueva Constitución (PDF). La Paz: Vicepresidencia del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. pp. 8–9.
  6. ^ PIEB (20 July 2011). "Comunidades con tierras tituladas pero sin derechos consolidados, según estudio". Retrieved 22 July 2011. El gobierno del presidente Evo Morales fue el que más tituló propiedad agraria a favor de las Tierras Comunitarias de Origen (TCOs), pero a la vez, el que más se resiste a cumplir los derechos constitucionales que les corresponde a estos pueblos,
  7. ^ a b c Torrico, Ismael Guzmán; Eulogio Núñez (2008-01-01). Saneamiento de la tierra en seis regiones de Bolivia 1996-2007. CIPCA. p. 36. ISBN 978-99954-35-05-9.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Oyarzún, José Aylwin (2004). Derechos humanos y pueblos indígenas: tendencias internacionales y contexto chileno. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. p. 182. ISBN 978-956-236-161-3.
  9. ^ Torrico, José Antonio Rocha; Carla María Bazoalto Olmos; Luis Fernando Cuéllar Camargo (2008-01-01). Autonomías indígenas, construcción de nación y fortalecimiento del Estado: estudios de caso en las regiones Norte de Potosí, guaraní del Isoso y kallawaya. FUNDACION PIEB. p. 55. ISBN 978-99954-32-25-6.
  10. ^ SmartWood (2005), Resumen Público de Certificación de Territorio Comunitario de Origen Yuqui - CIRI (Certificado: SW-FM/COC-1178), p. 8
  11. ^ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Bolivia - Situation of the Guarani Indigenous People. Retrieved 2011-07-17. at paragraph 200.
  12. ^ a b c Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria (2011-04-19). "INRA entregó títulos ejecutoriales a tres Tierras Comunitarias de Origen de Potosí". Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2011-07-26. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)