NGC 4299 is a spiral galaxy[2] located about 55 million light-years away[3][4] in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on March 15, 1784[5] and is a member of the Virgo Cluster.[6][4][7]

NGC 4299
NGC4299 - SDSS DR14.jpg
SDSS image of NGC 4299
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 12h 21m 40.5s[1]
Declination11° 30′ 00″[1]
Helio radial velocity237 km/s[1]
Distance55 Mly (16.8 Mpc)[1]
Group or clusterVirgo Cluster
Apparent magnitude (V)12.88[1]
Size~36,000 ly (11 kpc) (estimated)[1]
Apparent size (V)1.7 x 1.6[1]
Other designations
CGCG 70-25, IRAS 12191+1146, MCG 2-32-10, PGC 39968, UGC 7414, VCC 491[1]

NGC 4299 forms an interacting pair with NGC 4294.[8]

Physical characteristicsEdit

NGC 4299 has a fairly featureless disk[9] with a very small, weak bulge and weak, asymmetric spiral arms[10] plus numerous bright HII regions.[11][12]

At the center of NGC 4299 lies a nuclear star cluster[13][14] with a diameter of ~5.9 ly (1.8 pc).[15]

Truncated Hα diskEdit

NGC 4299 has a truncated Hα disk with the outer extent of the having an irregular distribution except in the southwest where it forms a well-defined ridge. This appears to be the result of ram-pressure.[12]

Interaction with NGC 4294Edit

As a result of a tidal interaction with NGC 4294, NGC 4299 has a disturbed optical and HI morphology,[16][11] with asymmetric spiral arms, a small, weak bar[10] and a high global star formation rate that appears to have been enhanced by ram-pressure.[12]

HI tailEdit

Chung et al. identified that NGC 4299 has a one sided[17][18] tail of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI).[10][19] The tail points to the southwest[17][8] and appears to be a result of ram-pressure[19][20][10] or by a tidal interaction with NGC 4294.[10] The tail has no optical counterpart[10][17] and is oriented parallel to the HI tail found in NGC 4294.[17]

NGC 4299 appears to have a second tail pointing to the southeast that is much broader and lower in HI surface density than the main tail.[17]

Black HoleEdit

NGC 4299 may harbor an intermediate-mass black hole with an estimated mass ranging from 7,000 (7*10^3) to 200,000 (2*10^5) solar masses.[21]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 4299. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  2. ^ "Your NED Search Results". Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  3. ^ "NED Query Results for NGC 4299". Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  4. ^ a b R. B. Tully (1988). Nearby Galaxies Catalog. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35299-4.
  5. ^ "New General Catalog Objects: NGC 4250 - 4299". Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  6. ^ Binggeli, B.; Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A. (September 1985). "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area. V - Luminosity functions of Virgo Cluster galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 90: 1681. Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B. doi:10.1086/113874. ISSN 0004-6256.
  7. ^ "Detailed Object Classifications". Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  8. ^ a b Vlahakis, C.; Verstappen, J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Pohlen, M.; Grossi, M.; Fritz, J.; Looze, I. De; Clemens, M.; Ciesla, L. (2012-09-01). "The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XI. Environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 545: A75. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219689. ISSN 0004-6361.
  9. ^ Das, M.; Sengupta, C.; Ramya, S.; Misra, K. (2012-07-11). "Star formation in bulgeless late type galaxies: clues to their evolution". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 423 (4): 3274–3284. arXiv:1205.1936. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21120.x.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Crowl, Hugh; Vollmer, Bernd (2009-12-01). "VLA IMAGING OF VIRGO SPIRALS IN ATOMIC GAS (VIVA). I. THE ATLAS AND THE H I PROPERTIES". The Astronomical Journal. 138 (6): 1741–1816. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/138/6/1741. ISSN 0004-6256.
  11. ^ a b Smith, Beverly J.; Madden, Suzanne C. (1997-07-01). "Interstellar Gas in Low Mass Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 114: 138–146. doi:10.1086/118460. ISSN 0004-6256.
  12. ^ a b c Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. (2004-10-01). "Halpha Morphologies and Environmental Effects in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 613: 866–885. doi:10.1086/423191. ISSN 0004-637X.
  13. ^ Boeker, Torsten; Laine, Seppo; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Sarzi, Marc; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ho, Luis C.; Shields, Joseph C. (March 2002). "An HST Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies: I. Observations and Image Analysis". The Astronomical Journal. 123 (3): 1389–1410. doi:10.1086/339025.
  14. ^ Boker, Torsten; Sarzi, Marc; McLaughlin, Dean E.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ho, Luis C.; Shields, Joseph C. (2004-01-01). "A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. II. Cluster Sizes and Structural Parameter Correlations". The Astronomical Journal. 127: 105–118. doi:10.1086/380231. ISSN 0004-6256.
  15. ^ Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Böker, Torsten; Leigh, Natan; Lützgendorf, Nora; Neumayer, Nadine (2016-04-01). "Masses and Scaling Relations for Nuclear Star Clusters, and their Coexistence with Central Black Holes". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 457 (2): 2122–2138. arXiv:1601.02613. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw093. ISSN 0035-8711.
  16. ^ Warmels, R. H. (1988-01-01). "The H I properties of spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. I - Westerbork observations of 15 Virgo Cluster galaxies. II - One-dimensional Westerbork observations of 21 galaxies". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series. 72: 19–87. ISSN 0365-0138.
  17. ^ a b c d e Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Vollmer, Bernd (2007-04-20). "Virgo Galaxies with Long One-Sided HI Tails". The Astrophysical Journal. 659 (2): L115–L119. doi:10.1086/518034. ISSN 0004-637X.
  18. ^ Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.; de Blok, W. J. G.; van Driel, W. (2011-10-01). "Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 416 (4): 2447–2454. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18662.x.
  19. ^ a b Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy (2010-10-20). "Tadpole Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field". The Astrophysical Journal. 722 (2): 1895–1907. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/722/2/1895. ISSN 0004-637X.
  20. ^ Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Knapen, Johan H. (2013-09-02). Secular Evolution of Galaxies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107035270.
  21. ^ Davis, Benjamin L.; Soria, Roberto; Graham, Alister W. (2018-11-08). "Expected intermediate mass black holes in the Virgo cluster. II. Late-type galaxies". arXiv:1811.03232. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3068. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External linksEdit