Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity. Movement disorders are synonymous with basal ganglia or extrapyramidal diseases. Movement disorders are conventionally divided into two major categories- hyperkinetic and hypokinetic.
Hyperkinetic movement disorders refer to dyskinesia, or excessive, often repetitive, involuntary movements that intrude upon the normal flow of motor activity.
Hypokinetic movement disorders refer to akinesia (lack of movement), hypokinesia (reduced amplitude of movements), bradykinesia (slow movement) and rigidity. In primary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is the primary manifestation of the disorder. In secondary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is a manifestation of another systemic or neurological disorder.
|Hypokinetic Movement disorders|
|Parkinson's disease (Primary or Idiopathic Parkinsonism)||332||G20|
|Parkinson plus syndromes|
|Progressive Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia||G23.1|
|Hyperkinetic Movement disorders|
|Drug induced dystonia||G24.0|
|Idiopathic familial dystonia||333.6||G24.1|
|Idiopathic nonfamilial dystonia||333.7||G24.2|
|Ideopathic orofacial dystonia||G24.4|
|Other extrapyramidal movement disorders||G25|
|Drug induced tremor||G25.1|
|Other specified form of tremor||G25.2|
|Chorea (rapid, involuntary movement)|
|Drug induced chorea||G25.4|
|Rheumatic chorea (Sydenham's chorea)||I02|
|Ballismus (violent involuntary rapid and irregular movements)||G25.85|
|Hemiballismus (affecting only one side of the body)||G25.85|
|Athetosis (contorted torsion or twisting)||333.71||R25.8|
|Dyskinesia (abnormal, involuntary movement)|
|Tic disorders (involuntary, compulsive, repetitive, stereotyped)||F95|
|Drug-induced tics and tics of organic origin||333.3||G25.6|
|Stereotypic movement disorder||F98.5|
|Paroxysmal nocturnal limb movement||G25.80|
|Painful legs (or arms), moving toes (or fingers) syndrome||G25.81|
|Sporadic restless leg syndrome||G25.82|
|Familial restless leg syndrome||G25.83|
|Abnormal head movements||R25.0|
|Cramp and spasm||R25.2|
|Cerebral palsy (unspecified)||343.9||G80.9|
Step I : Decide the dominant type of movement disorder
Step II : Make differential diagnosis of the particular disorder
Step II: Confirm the diagnosis by lab tests
- Metabolic screening
- CSF examination
- Neurophysiological tests
- Pharmacological tests
Vesalius and Piccolomini in 16th century distinguished subcortical nuclei from cortex and white matter. However Willis' conceptualized the corpus striatum as the seat of motor power in the late 17th century. In mid-19th-century movement disorders were localized to striatum by Choreaby Broadbent and Jackson, and athetosis by Hammond. By the late 19th century, many movement disorders were described but for most no pathologic correlate was known.
- Fahn, Stanley; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark (2011-08-09). Principles and Practice of Movement Disorders. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 1437737706.
- Bradley, Walter George (2004-01-01). Neurology in Clinical Practice: Principles of diagnosis and management. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9789997625885.
- Flemming, Kelly; Jones, Lyell (2015-06-15). Mayo Clinic Neurology Board Review: Clinical Neurology for Initial Certification and MOC. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190244934.
- Singer, Harvey S.; Mink, Jonathan; Gilbert, Donald L.; Jankovic, Joseph (2015-10-27). Movement Disorders in Childhood. Academic Press. ISBN 9780124115804.
- Poewe, Werner; Jankovic, Joseph (2014-02-20). Movement Disorders in Neurologic and Systemic Disease. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107024618.
- "MedlinePlus: Movement Disorders".
- Baizabal-Carvallo, JF; Jankovic J. (2012-07-18). "Movement disorders in autoimmune diseases". Movement Disorders. 27 (8): 935–46. doi:10.1002/mds.25011. PMID 22555904.
- Lanska, Douglas J. (2010-01-01). "Chapter 33: the history of movement disorders". Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 95: 501–546. doi:10.1016/S0072-9752(08)02133-7. ISSN 0072-9752. PMID 19892136.