Mortimer Durand

Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, GCMG, KCSI, KCIE, PC (14 February 1850 – 8 June 1924) was a British Anglo-Indian diplomat and member of the Indian Civil Service.

Sir Henry Mortimer Durand'
Portrait of Henry Mortimer Durand.jpg
Durand, c. 1903
Born(1850-02-14)14 February 1850
Died8 June 1924(1924-06-08) (aged 74)
Polden, Somerset, United Kingdom

BackgroundEdit

Born at Sehore, Bhopal, India, he was the son of Sir Henry Marion Durand, the Resident of Baroda and he was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, and Tonbridge School.[1]

CareerEdit

Durand entered the Indian Civil Service in 1873. He served as the Political Secretary in Kabul during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–1880); was Foreign Secretary of India from 1884 to 1894; and appointed Minister plenipotentiary at Tehran in 1894, where despite being a Persian scholar and fluently speaking the language, he made little impression either in Tehran or on his superiors in London. He left Persia in March 1900,[2] by which time owing to the illness of his wife Ella he had withdrawn from social life and the legation was in a depressed and disorganised state. He served as British Ambassador to Spain from 1900 to 1903, and as Ambassador to the United States from 1903 to 1906.

He was appointed a CSI in 1881[3] knighted with a KCIE in 1888,[4] and a KCSI in 1894[5] and appointed a GCMG in 1900.[6]

General election January 1910: Plymouth[7][8][9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Charles Mallet 8,091 25.8 −3.2
Liberal Aneurin Williams 7,961 25.5 −3.9
Conservative Waldorf Astor 7,650 24.5 +3.2
Conservative Mortimer Durand 7,556 24.2 +3.9
Majority 311 1.0 −6.7
Turnout 87.9 +2.6
Registered electors 18,085
Liberal hold Swing −3.2
Liberal hold Swing −3.9

Literary worksEdit

From 1906, after his return to England, he devoted his time to writing.

He also published the biography of his father, General Henry Marion Durand (1812–1871), and also had ambitions as a novelist, often with his wife, Lady E. R. Durand (1852–1913), as a co-author. Some of his publications are:

  • Nadir Shah: An Historical Novel (1908)
  • The Life of Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall (1913)
  • The Life of Field-Marshal Sir George White, V.C. (1915)
  • The Thirteenth Hussars in the Great War (1921)
  • An Autumn Tour in Western Persia (1902) is by his wife E. R. Durand

LegacyEdit

Durand LineEdit

The Durand Line is named after Sir Mortimer and remains the international border between Afghanistan and modern-day Pakistan that is officially recognized by all countries apart from Afghanistan. The border is an ongoing point of contention between the two countries, as Afghanistan unilaterally disputes the legitimacy of the border.

In 1884 Durand informed Abdur Rahman Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan, the frontier between modern-day Pakistan (the successor state of British India) and Afghanistan that the garrison of Panjdeh had been slaughtered on the orders of the Russian General Komarov. The Russians wished to stop British occupation of Herat, so Durand was despatched to prevent "the strained relations which then existed between Russia and ourselves," wrote the Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, and "might in itself have proved the occasion of a long miserable war." Tensions at home in British newspapers heightened the urgency of the incident, threatening war in Central Asia, which Rahman was desperate to avoid. A telephone line was kept open between Lord Granville and Count Giers in St Petersburg.[10]

Sir Mortimer was deputed to Kabul by the government of British India for the purpose of settling an exchange of territory required by the demarcation of the Joint Boundary Commission between northeastern Afghanistan and the Russian possessions along the same lines as in 1873, except for the southward salient at Panjdeh. The British made it clear that any further extension towards Herat would amount to a declaration of war. Rahman showed his usual ability in diplomatic argument, his tenacity where his own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying insight into the real situation. A Royal Commission was established to demarcate the boundary between Afghanistan and the British-governed India. The two parties camped at Parachinar, now part of FATA Pakistan, near Khost Afghanistan. From the British side the camp was attended by Mortimer Durand and Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, the Political Agent for Khyber. The Afghans were represented by Sahibzada Abdul Latif and Governor Sardar Shireendil Khan representing Amir Abdur Rahman Khan.[11] The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the British Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed. The Durand Road in Lahore is also named after him.

Durand CupEdit

In 1888, Durand founded a football tournament in Shimla to promote the value of sports as a means to maintain health, as well as to encourage sporting competition in India. It would later be named after him.[12][13]

DeathEdit

Durand died at Quetta, Baluchistan Agency, British India, in 1924. According to Abdus Sattar, a headmaster at D.I. Khan High School, his grave is in the Christian cemetery near Dera Ismail Khan, which is now located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[14][better source needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Riddick, John (2006). The History of British India: A Chronology. Praeger, Westport, Connecticut. p. 258. ISBN 9780313322808. OCLC 836279503.
  2. ^ "Court Circular". The Times. No. 36085. 9 March 1900. p. 6.
  3. ^ The London Gazette, 1 March 1881. The London Gazette. 1 March 1881. Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  4. ^ Great Britain. India Office (1905). The India List and India Office List for 1905. Harrison and Sons. p. 145. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  5. ^ London Gazette, 2 January 1894. The London Gazette. 2 January 1894. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  6. ^ London Gazette, 1 June 1900. The London Gazette. 1 June 1900. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  7. ^ The Liberal year book, 1907. Harvester Press. 1972. ISBN 0-85527-362-3. OCLC 502269489.
  8. ^ Craig, Fred W. S. (1974). British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-16903-4. OCLC 1043610.
  9. ^ Debrett's House of Commons, Dean., 1867, OCLC 1042911184 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  10. ^ Hopkirk, Peter (2016). The Great Game : On Secret Service in High Asia. John Murray. pp. 430–431. ISBN 978-0-7195-6447-5. OCLC 970607666.
  11. ^ Sahibzada Zahoor Ahmad (13 July 2003). "Hazrat Sahibzada Abdul Latif Shaheed" (in Urdu). Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  12. ^ "The Durand Cup – About". durandcup.in. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  13. ^ Upadhyay, Somesh (22 December 2010). "Indian Football : Ah! Those golden days..." www.sportskeeda.com. Sportskeeda. Archived from the original on 14 July 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  14. ^ "Grave Sir Henry Mortimer Durand - Wikimapia". Wikimapia. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
Bibliography

External linksEdit

  • The papers of Henry Marion Durand, including diaries, correspondence, memoranda, literary papers, photographs and presscuttings are held by SOAS Special Collections. Digitised items from the collections may be viewed online here.