Colophospermum mopane, commonly called mopane, mophane, mopani, balsam tree, butterfly tree, or turpentine tree, is a tree in the legume family (Fabaceae), that grows in hot, dry, low-lying areas, 200 to 1,150 metres (660 to 3,770 ft) in elevation, in the far northern parts of southern Africa. The tree only occurs in Africa and is the only species in genus Colophospermum. Its distinctive butterfly-shaped (bifoliate) leaf and thin seed pod make it easy to identify. In terms of human use it is, together with camel thorn and leadwood, one of the three regionally important firewood trees.
Kirk ex J.Léonard
Range and habitEdit
It is native to Angola and Malawi. It is found growing in alkaline (high lime content) soils which are shallow and not well drained. It also grows in alluvial soils (soil deposited by rivers). In small portions of South Africa and larger adjacent areas of Botswana and Zimbabwe, the trees tend to vary between 4 and 18 m (13 and 59 ft), often called "mopane scrub" (shrub) but also sometimes taller and forming woodland, where further north the trees are taller and form tall woodlands referred to as cathedral mopane. This tree does not grow well outside hot, frost-free areas with summer rainfall.
There are two ecoregions where mopane is the predominant vegetation. The Angolan Mopane woodlands are in southwestern Angola and northern Namibia, and the Zambezian and mopane woodlands extend over the lowlands of the Zambezi River and its tributaries in Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, South Africa, and Swaziland.
Mopane wood is one of southern Africa's heaviest and is difficult to work because of its hardness. However, this also makes it termite resistant. For this reason it has long been used for building houses and fences, as railway sleepers and as pit props. The termite-resistance and rich, reddish colouring also make it popular for flooring. Outside Africa, mopane is gaining popularity as a heavy, decorative wood, its uses including aquarium ornaments, bases for lamps or sculptures, and garden accents.
It is also increasingly being used in the construction of musical instruments, particularly woodwind. Suitable quality African blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon), traditionally used for clarinets, is becoming harder to find. Mopane is fairly oily, seasons very well with few splits or shakes, and produces instruments of a warm, rich tone.
The tree is a major food source for the mopane worm, the caterpillar of the moth Gonimbrasia belina. The caterpillars are rich in protein and are eaten by people. The tree also acts as a foodplant for a wild silk moth, Gonometa rufobrunnea. Cocoons of the moth are harvested as wild silk, to make cloth.
Colophospermum is Latinised Greek for "oily seed", in reference to the resinous seed (i.e. spermum) which has a turpentine smell. Colophon was the birthplace of Homer in Ionia, and was famous for its rosin, a substance obtained from turpentine or the gummy exudate of some trees. The species name mopane is taken from the local name for the tree.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Colophospermum mopane". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- The Wood Database Mopane. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Prosono International Woods for woodwinds. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Oppong, C.K., Addo-Bediako, A., Potgieter, M.J. & Wessels, D.C.J. 2009. Distribution of the eggs of the mopane psyllid Retroacizzia mopani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on the mopane tree. African Invertebrates 50 (1): 185-190. 
- Oppong, C.K., Addo-Bediako, A., Potgieter, M.J. & Wessels, D.C.J. 2010. Nymphal behaviour and lerp construction in the mopane psyllid Retroacizzia mopani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). African Invertebrates 51 (1): 201-205."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-24. Retrieved 2010-06-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- A reference to the species' resinous seed: 'Origins and Meanings of Names of South African Plant Genera' - W.P.U. Jackson (1990)
- Esterhuyse, N., Von Breitenbach, J. & Söhnge, H. 2001. Remarkable trees of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
- Ferwerda, J.G. (2005) Charting the quality of forage: measuring and mapping the variation of chemical components in foliage with hyperspectral remote sensing. Wageningen, Wageningen University, 2005. ITC Dissertation 126, 166. ISBN 90-8504-209-7.
- Media related to Colophospermum mopane at Wikimedia Commons