Megatons to Megawatts Program
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The Megatons to Megawatts Program, successfully completed in December 2013, is the popular name given to the program which is also called the United States-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement. The official name of the program is the "Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United States of America Concerning the Disposition of Highly-Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons", dated February 18, 1993. Under this Agreement, Russia agreed to supply the United States with low-enriched uranium (LEU) obtained from high-enriched uranium (HEU) found to be in excess of Russian defense purposes. The United States agreed to purchase the low-enriched uranium fuel.
The original proposal for this program was made by Thomas Neff, a physicist at MIT, in an October 24, 1991 Op-Ed in The New York Times. On August 28, 1992, in Moscow, U.S. and Russian negotiators initialed the 20-year agreement and President George H. W. Bush announced the agreement on August 31, 1992. In 1993, the agreement was signed and initiated by President Clinton and the commercial implementing contract was then signed by both parties.
Terms of the programEdit
Under this Agreement, the United States and Russia agreed to commercially implement a 20-year program to convert 500 metric tons of HEU (uranium-235 enriched to 90 percent) taken from Soviet era warheads, into LEU (less than 5 percent uranium-235). The terms of the agreement required that it be implemented on commercial terms without government funds. The agreement named the Department of Energy as the executive agent for the US side. The DOE appointed the newly privatized United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as the commercial agent, its executive program contractor. The Russian Federation designated Techsnabexport (TENEX), a commercial subsidiary of its Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom), as the agent to implement the program on commercial terms. On January 14, 1994, the commercial contract between USEC and TENEX (HEU-LEU Contract) was signed. The terms also required that the HEU be converted by dilution (downblending) to LEU in Russian nuclear facilities. USEC would then purchase the low-enriched fuel and transport it to its facilities in the US. The first shipment of LEU took place in May 1995.
The value of the process is in two components: the LEU Feed (feed component of natural uranium) and the work involved in the conversion process, measured as separative work units (SWU). Both have separate commercial values. Early disagreements on interpretations of the terms of the governmental and commercial agreements on this issue led to controversy and some delays. Although each shipment contains LEU, the commercial nature of the global uranium market defines the uranium and the enrichment components as separate commercial values and costs. The solution reached was for USEC to continue payments for the SWU component it purchased and also to transfer the equivalent of the LEU feed component to the Russian side. In March 1999, Minatom and the US Department of Energy signed the Agreement Concerning the Transfer of Source Material to the Russian Federation (the Transfer Agreement), and at the same time TENEX signed a Contract with a Group of Western Companies (Cameco, Canada; Cogema, France; Nukem, Germany/US) regarding the purchase of the LEU Feed. As years passed, numerous commercial contract terms were renegotiated and revised to accommodate mutual interests.
Summary of programEdit
The Megatons to Megawatts program was initiated in 1993 and completed on schedule in December 2013. A total of 500 tonnes of Russian warhead grade HEU (equivalent to 20,008 nuclear warheads) were converted in Russia to nearly 15,000 tonnes tons of LEU (low enriched uranium) and sold to the US for use as fuel in American nuclear power plants. The program was the largest and most successful nuclear non-proliferation program to date. The first nuclear power plant to receive low-enriched fuel containing uranium under this program was the Cooper Nuclear Station in 1998. During the 20-year Megatons to Megawatts program, as much as 10 percent of the electricity produced in the United States was generated by fuel fabricated using LEU from Russian HEU.
During this period, on a comparatively modest basis, the US government has also been converting some of its excess nuclear warhead HEU into power plant fuel. Efforts have also been undertaken to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of converting warhead plutonium into fuel to augment nuclear fuel for US power plants.
Nuclear industry sources forecasted high demand trends that would require finding other uranium supply sources after the completion of the Megatons to Megawatts agreement. In 2011, TENEX and USEC signed a long-term contract (Transitional Supply Agreement – TSA) for the provision of enrichment services to the United States that could see annual deliveries after 2015 reaching a level of around half the annual supply volume under the HEU Deal. No plans have been announced for new initiatives similar to the Megatons to Megawatts program.
- Arms Control website.
- Neff, Thomas L. (24 October 1991). "A Grand Uranium Bargain" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- New York Times September 6, 1992.
- RUSSIAN-U.S. HEU AGREEMENT [Russian-U.S. agreement concerning the disposition of highly enriched uranium extracted from nuclear weapons]. February 18, 1993. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- DeVolpi, Alexander; Minkov, Vladimir E.; et al. (2005). Nuclear Shadowboxing: Legacies and Challenges. 2. Kalamazoo, Mich.: DeVolpi. p. VII-54. ISBN 0-9777734-1-8.
- "Megatons to Megawatts". U.S. Enrichment Corp. Archived from the original on July 16, 2008.
- TENEX Celebrates 50 Years in the Nuclear Energy Business. TENEX website. 25.07.
"A Grand Uranium Bargain," Thomas L. Neff (Op-Ed), New York Times, October 24, 1991. "From Soviet Warheads to U.S. Reactor Fuel," William J. Broad, September 6, 1992.
- Comprehensive history of the program's origin by Center for Defense Information
- National Nuclear Security Administration
- USEC website for the Program
- TENEX website
- The U.S.-Russian HEU Agreement: Internal Safeguards to Prevent Diversion of HEU. Princeton.edu
- HEU-LEU Project : A Success Story of Russian-US Nuclear Disarmament Cooperation. Ceness-Russia. org
- Uranium Enrichment and Fuel Fabrication - Current Issues (Russia), WISE
- BusinessWire article
- Military Warheads as a Source of Nuclear Fuel, WNA, March 2008
- From Warheads to Cheap Energy, William J. Broad, NYT 27 January 2014
- , [Marie-Ann Corley], Technology Review