Named for a mythical medieval French sword, the Durandal is an anti-runway penetration bomb developed by the French company Matra (now MBDA), designed to destroy airport runways and exported to several countries. A simple crater in a runway could be just filled in, so the Durandal uses two explosions to displace the concrete slabs of a runway, thus much more difficult to repair.
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||United States, France, Israel|
|Wars||Gulf War (1991)|
|Manufacturer||Matra (now MBDA)|
|Mass||200 kg (440 lb)|
|Length||2.7 m (8 ft 10 in)|
|Diameter||22.3 cm (8.8 in)|
|Warhead weight||100 kg (220 lb) primary charge|
15 kg (33 lb) secondary charge
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2011)
Designed to be dropped from low altitudes, the bomb's fall is slowed by a parachute. The maximum release speed is 550 knots (1,020 km/h; 630 mph) and the minimum release altitude is 200 feet (61 m). When the bomb has reached a 40° angle due to the parachute's drag, it fires a rocket booster that accelerates it into the runway surface. The 100-kilogram (220 lb) primary charge explodes after the weapon has penetrated the concrete and drives the secondary charge even deeper. The 15-kilogram (33 lb) secondary charge then explodes after a one-second delay. Later production weapons have a programmable fuse that can delay the secondary detonation up to several hours.
The weapon can penetrate up to 40 centimetres (16 in) of concrete, and creates a crater 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) deep and approximately 5 metres (16 ft) in diameter. In addition, concrete slabs around the crater are disturbed in an area approximately 15 metres (49 ft) in diameter. The disturbed slabs are displaced up to 50 centimetres (20 in) above the original surface, making repair more difficult than the simple crater from a conventional bomb.
There is a persistent story that the first use of the current Matra Durandal was by Israeli Mirages during the Six-Day War. This is inaccurate, as this war took place ten years before the Durandal was first available on the arms market. Rather, the prototype French/Israeli anti-runway weapon program which actually cratered Egyptian runways in 1967 is related, but distinct from the Durandal. The Israeli weapon used rockets rather than parachutes to brake over the target. The Matra development branch was in development from 1971 on and would form the basis for the Durandal which uses parachute braking.
The Durandal was adopted by the US in a slightly modified form (with a steeper impact angle and a higher 630 knot deployment speed) as the BLU-107/B in the 1980s, and carried by F-111 and F-15E strike aircraft.
|The U.S. Air Force procurement program for Durandal|
|Dollars in millions||9.2||23.3||87.5||184.1||195.1||499.2|
It was used by the USAF in Desert Storm, delivered by F-111E's of the 20th Fighter Wing operating out of Turkey. 20th Wing flight commander Captain George Kelman said "there is nothing better at destroying a runway than a Durandal."
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2019)
- "Ordnance & Munitions Forecast". www.docstoc.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Jane's Air Launched Weapons". Jane's Information group. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Dassault Mirage: The Combat Log", Salvador Mafe Huertas, page-41, ISBN 978-0764301681
- Department of Defense appropriations for 1983, pt. 7, p. 483.
- "MBDA (Matra) BLU-107/B Durandal". www.designation-systems.net. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "BLU-107 Durandal - Dumb Bombs". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "U.S. out of anger: After Chinese copy of Russian weapons and turned to France". www.9abc.net. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013.
- Chenel, Bernard; Liébert, Michel; Moreau, Eric (2014). Mirage III/5/50 en service à l'étranger. Le Vigen, France: Editions LELA Presse. p. 280. ISBN 978-2-914-017-763.