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A mascara tube and a wand applicator

Mascara is a cosmetic commonly used to enhance the eyelashes. It may darken, thicken, lengthen, and/or define the eyelashes. Normally in one of three forms—liquid, cake, or cream—the modern mascara product has various formulas; however, most contain the same basic components of pigments, oils, waxes, and preservatives.

Contents

DefinitionEdit

The Collins English Dictionary defines mascara as, "a cosmetic substance for darkening, lengthening, curling, coloring, and thickening the eyelashes, applied with a brush or rod." The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) adds that mascara is occasionally used on the eyebrows as well.

The OED also references mascaro from works published in the late 15th century. In 1886, the Peck & Snyder Catalogue advertises, “Mascaro or Water Cosmetique… For darkening the eyebrow and moustaches without greasing them and making them prominent.” In 1890, the Century Dictionary defined mascara as “a kind of paint used for the eyebrows and eyelashes by actors.” And in 1894, N. Lynn advises in Lynn’s Practical Hints for Making-up, “to darken eyelashes, paint with mascara, or black paint, with a small brush.

EtymologyEdit

The source of the word “mascara” is unclear. he Spanish word máscara meaning ‘mask’ or ‘stain’, and the Italian word maschera meaning ‘mask’.[1] A related Catalan word describes soot or a black smear, and the Portuguese word máscara means ‘mask’ and mascarra means dark stain or smut).[2] There is even strong support for a possible source from the Arabic word maskharah or ‘buffoon’.[3][4] The Hebrew word משקרות (MaSQROTh) as relating to women's eyes is found in Isaiah 3:16.[5]

Latin treatises sometimes used the word mascara when referring to witches.[6]

HistoryEdit

 
Mascara being applied.

Aesthetic adornment is a cultural universal and mascara can be documented in ancient Egypt. Records from around 4000 BC refer to a substance called kohl that was used to darken eyelashes, eyes, and eyebrows.[7] Kohl was used to mask the eyes, believed to ward off evil spirits and protect the soul, by both men and women. Often composed of galena; malachite; and charcoal or soot, crocodile stool; honey; and water was added to keep the kohl from running.[8] Through Egypt’s influence, kohl usage persisted in the subsequent Babylonian, Greek and Roman empires. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, kohl fell into disuse on the European continent, where it had been considered solely a cosmetic; conversely, it continued to be widely used in the Middle East for religious purposes.[7]

Makeup was considered unsightly and uncouth in Western culture until the Victorian era. During the Victorian era, social opinion shifted radically towards the promotion of cosmetics, and women were known to spend a majority of their day occupied with beauty regimens. Great efforts were made to create the illusion of long, dark eyelashes.[9] Attempting this, Victorian women made a type of mascara in their own homes.[8] They would heat a mixture of ash or lampblack and elderberry juice on a plate and apply the heated mixture to their eyelashes.[10]

The product that people would recognize as mascara today did not develop until the 19th century. A chemist named Eugène Rimmel developed a cosmetic using the newly invented petroleum jelly. The name Rimmel became synonymous with the substance and still translates to “mascara” in the Portuguese, Spanish, Greek, Turkish, Romanian, and Persian languages today.[11]

Across the Atlantic Ocean and at roughly the same time, in 1915, Thomas Lyle Williams created a remarkably similar substance for his sister Maybel.[11] In 1917 he started a mail-order business from the product that grew to become the company Maybelline.[8]

The mascara developed by these two men consisted of petroleum jelly and coal in a set ratio.[11] It was undeniably messy, and a better alternative was soon developed. A dampened brush was rubbed against a cake containing soap and black dye in equal proportions and applied to the lashes.[7] Still it was extremely messy. No significant improvement occurred until 1957 with an innovation by Helena Rubinstein.

The events leading to Rubinstein’s improvement began in Paris in the early 20th century. There, at the fashion capital of the world, mascara was quickly gaining popularity and common usage.[12] Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubinstein, two giants in the American beauty industry, watched and kept abreast of its development. After the First World War, American consumers became eager for new products.[13] Sensing an opportunity, both Rubinstein and Arden launched their own brands of cosmetics that included mascara. Through the efforts of these two rivals and public temperament, mascara finally gained respectability and favor in American society.[14]

The invention of the photograph and motion picture launched mascara’s popularity and usage further forward in America. Motion pictures especially advertised a new standard of beauty and sex appeal.[15] Famous actresses of the classic cinema era, such as Theda Bara, Pola Negri, Clara Bow, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Bette Davis, and Jean Harlow, depended heavily upon mascara for their glamorized appearances, which the average woman sought to mimic.[16]:8–9,11–12

In 1933, a woman known on court records as Mrs. Brown consented to have her eyelashes permanently dyed.[16]:20 Unfortunately, the product, Lash Lure, used para-phenylenediamine, a chemical extremely toxic to the body, as the dyeing agent.[16]:23 At the time, cosmetics were unregulated by the Federal Drug Administration, and the dangers of paraphenylenediamine were unknown.[17] Within hours of the treatment, Mrs. Brown began experiencing severe symptoms of stinging and burning eyes. By the next morning, Mrs. Brown’s eyes had developed ulcers which oozed and had swollen shut.[16]:22 Use of Lash Lure resulted in blindness in Mrs. Brown and fifteen other women and also caused the death of another. It was only after the Lash Lure incident and several others like it, documented in Ruth deForest Lamb’s book entitled American Chamber of Horrors, that Congress granted the FDA the right to regulate cosmetics in 1938.[16]:24

Years later in 1957, Rubinstein created a formula that evolved mascara from a hard cake into a lotion-based cream. She packaged the new mascara in a tube to be sold with a brush. For use, the cream was squeezed onto the brush and applied to lashes.[13] Although still messy, it was a step towards the modern mascara product.

Soon, a grooved rod was patented. This device picked up the same amount of mascara for each use. Then the grooved rod was altered to the brush similar to the ones used today. The change in applicator led mascara to be even easier to use, and its popularity increased.[7]

Mascara is now trending towards multi-functional usage with many mascaras including lash boosting serums, botanicals and pro-vitamin enriched formulas. Korean technology is at the forefront of the development and there are a number of brands that use tubing formulas to coat the lash to deliver phenomenal results and a wide awake look. Some widely available brands offering this capability include Eyeko, Clinique and Blinc.

Ingredients and manufactureEdit

All formulations contain pigments, oils, and waxes.

Cosmetic pigmentsEdit

The pigmentation for black mascara is similar to that used by the Egyptians and Victorian women. Black and brown mascaras typically are colored by use of iron oxides.[18] Some mascaras contain ultramarine blue.[7]

Mascara is composed of a base mixture of pigments, waxes, and oils with varying supporting components. Mascara pigments most commonly include iron oxides and titanium dioxide which provide mascara with its desired color.[19] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) accounts for over 65% of inorganic pigments sales volume.[20] TiO2 gives the pigment a white color while different iron oxides provide a variety of colors such as red, yellow, brown, and black.[19] The particle size of opaque pigments ranges from 0.2-0.3 µm.[19]

Oils, waxes, etc.Edit

Among the many oils used, linseed oil, castor oil, eucalyptus oil, lanolin, and oil of turpentine are found frequently. Sesame oil is also commonly used.[7] Waxes usually found in mascara are paraffin wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax.[7]

Some mascaras are created with the use of fish scales.[21]

The desired effects of the mascara account for most variations of ingredients. Water-resistant mascaras require hydrophobic ingredients, like dodecane. Non water-resistant mascaras have base ingredients that are water-soluble.[22] Mascaras designed to lengthen or curl the eyelashes often contain nylon or rayon microfibers.[23] Additionally, ceresin, gum tragacanth, and methyl cellulose are regular ingredients serve as stiffeners.[7]

ManufactureEdit

Mascara is often used on a daily basis around the world. In 2016 alone, U.S. consumers spent 335.6 million USD on the top 10 leading mascara brands.[24]

In one method of production, referred to as anhydrous, all waxes, oils, and pigments are mixed, heated, and agitated simultaneously. The alternative method, termed emulsion, starts by combining water and thickeners. Separately, waxes and emulsifiers are combined. Pigment is then added individually to both mixtures. Finally all is combined in a homogenizer, which acts as a high-speed agitator in order to thoroughly mix the oils, water, waxes, and emulsifiers—ingredients that naturally repulse each other.[7]

Mascara has a shelf life of two to four months.[25]

SafetyEdit

 
Mascara coated eyelashes.

United StatesEdit

Mercury compounds can be used as a preservative in eye make-up and so are occasionally found in mascara.[26]

It is more common to develop a stye, or commoner still, swollen eyelids.[22] Styes and swollen eyelids are better classified as allergic reactions. The allergic reactions can be stimulated by any of the components of mascara but is usually attributed to methylparaben, aluminum powder, ceteareth-20, butylparaben, or benzyl alcohol.[22]

PsychologyEdit

The use of mascara may help to mimic neoteny, a youthful or childlike appearance which is believed to be correlated to beauty in women. In various cultures, the typical characteristics of children—soft cheeks, a round face, soft skin, large eyes, upturned nose, and a short chin—are often seen as ideal facial characteristics for women. Mascara pulls away the eyelash from the rim of the eye creating a doe-like illusion of larger, more open eyes. Wide eyes may be associated to youth.[27]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mascara. Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. 2010. 
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. Probably < Spanish máscara or Italian maschera, Italian regional mascara, all in sense ‘mask’; or perhaps alternatively < Catalan mascara ‘soot, black smear’, or Portuguese mascarra ‘stain, smut’. 
  3. ^ The Macquarie Dictionary. South Yarra: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2005. 
  4. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary (2 ed.). late 19th cent.: from Italian, literally ‘mask’, from Arabic masḵara ‘buffoon’. 
  5. ^ Adam Clarke, Commentary, 1831, volume III page 688
  6. ^ Barbra G. Walker (1996). The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets. p. 1077. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mascara", How Products Are Made, Advameg, Inc., 28 Nov 2007 
  8. ^ a b c Michalak, Jodie (7 Jul 2010), "History of Mascara", Love To Know 
  9. ^ Wong, Michael. “Fascinating History of Mascara.”
  10. ^ Flemming, Katherine (August 2006), "Technology: The History of Mascara", FASHION Magazine, St. Joseph Media 
  11. ^ a b c Parwani, Kritika (2010), "Mascara Ingredients", Buzzle 
  12. ^ "Arden, Elizabeth, Dec. 31, 1878?-Oct. 18, 1966". Notable American Women: The Modern Period. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1980. 
  13. ^ a b "Rubinstein, Helena, Dec. 25, 1870-April 1, 1965". Notable American Women: The Modern Period. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1980. 
  14. ^ "Arden, Elizabeth, née Florence Nightingale Graham", Chambers Biographical Dictionary, London: Chambers Harrap, 2007 
  15. ^ Purifoy, Jennifer, "Understanding the History of Cosmetics", History of 20th Century Fashion 
  16. ^ a b c d e Riordan, Teresa. Inventing Beauty: A History of Innovations that Have Made Us Beautiful. 
  17. ^ National Research Council. "Safety Testing." p. 21.
  18. ^ Günther Schneider, Sven Gohla, Jörg Schreiber, Waltraud Kaden, Uwe Schönrock, Hartmut Schmidt-Lewerkühne, Annegret Kuschel, Xenia Petsitis, Wolfgang Pape, water "Skin Cosmetics" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_219
  19. ^ a b c Swiler, Daniel R. (2005). "Pigments, Inorganic". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0914151814152215.a01.pub2. ISBN 9780471238966. 
  20. ^ Jones, Tony; Egerton, Terry A. (2000). "Titanium Compounds, Inorganic". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0914151805070518.a01.pub3. ISBN 9780471238966. 
  21. ^ www.oddee.com/item_98322.aspx
  22. ^ a b c Does Your Mascara Contain Toxic Ingredients?, Health Central, 4 Mar 2010 
  23. ^ Who Wins the Mascara War?, Carefair, 2009 
  24. ^ Drug Store News (August 9, 2016). "Leading mascara brands in the U.S. dollar sales, 2016 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 2017-11-27. 
  25. ^ "Shelf Life/Expiration Dating". US Food and Drug Administration. November 5, 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-27. 
  26. ^ "Cosmetic Safety". The New Harvard Guide to Women's Health. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2004. 
  27. ^ "Beauty Politics and Patriarchy: The Impact on Women's Lives". Encyclopedia of Women and Gender: Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society on Gender. Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology. 2001. 

External linksEdit

  Media related to Mascara at Wikimedia Commons