Market House (Providence, Rhode Island)
The Market House is a historic three-story brick market house in Market Square, in the College Hill, a neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, USA. The building was constructed between 1773 and 1775 and designed by prominent local architects, Joseph Brown and Declaration of Independence signer Stephen Hopkins. The bottom floor of the house was used as a market, and the upper level was used for holding meetings. Similar buildings existed in other American cities, such as Faneuil Hall in Boston and the Old Brick Market in Newport. The building housed the Providence City Council in the decades before the completion of City Hall.
|Location||Providence, Rhode Island|
|Part of||College Hill Historic District (ID70000019)|
|NRHP reference No.||72000001|
|Added to NRHP||April 13, 1972|
|Designated NHLDCP||November 10, 1970|
The primary architect for the Market House was Joseph Brown, then the foremost architect of the city. Brown's previous commissioned work included University Hall at Brown University and the First Baptist Meeting House. Brown was assisted in the design process by Stephen Hopkins.
The building was originally two stories in height, topped by a low gable roof. In 1797, a third floor was added to the house, which housed the first Masonic Lodge in Rhode Island. At this time, a wooden balustrade was added to the roof of the building. The east gable features a large bull's-eye window, while the west gable features a clock, installed in the 20th century.
With the exception of the building's eastern end, the first floor of is surrounded on all sides by a series of large round arches that originally formed an arcade. In the 19th century, the arcade was closed off with the installation of windows.
In August 1771, a petition signed by a number of townspeople was presented to the General Assembly, asking for a market house. The General Assembly raised funds through a lottery to erect a building in a location proposed by David Bucklin. Excavations on Market House began on May 25, 1773 and were completed in 1775.
Almost immediately, Market House became the center of civic life in Providence, Rhode Island, due to its central location at the east end of the Weybosset Bridge. On March 2, 1775, residents gathered there to show their resistance to British taxation by burning British tea.
The building's third floor housed the first Masonic Lodge in Rhode Island. Thomas Smith Webb was a member of the lodge, and in 1802 Webb organized St. John's Encampment Number One, which was the first Knights Templar organization in America.
In 1832, Providence Mayor Samuel W. Bridgham moved Providence City Council to meet in Market House. At first, the City Council, Mayor's Office, and Board of Aldermen were located on the second floor. As the city grew, the city government purchased the third floor from the Masons, and eventually occupied the entire building, which was then renamed the "City Building." By 1845 the city government outgrew the building and drew up plans to build a new City Hall. By 1878 the new City Hall was completed and the city vacated Market House.
In the years after the city left the building, tenants included the Providence Board of Trade (later known as the Chamber of Commerce), the Henry Lippitt Company, several manufacturing companies, a barber, the Rhode Island Poultry Association, and the Rhode Island Electric Light Company. Market Square and Westminster Street were the first parts of Providence to receive electric street lights.
The building underwent some restoration work in the 1930s, and by 1940 the building was restored to its 1833 appearance. In 1948, Mayor Dennis J. Roberts signed a deed to give the building to the Rhode Island School of Design, with the provision that the exterior of the building be maintained. Architect John Hutchins Cady was hired to remodel the interior with classrooms and studios.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
- "NRHP nomination for Market House" (PDF). Rhode Island Preservation. Retrieved 2014-10-15. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Cady, John Hutchins (October 1952). "The Providence Market House and its neighborhood" (PDF). Rhode Island History. Rhode Island Historical Society. 11 (4): 97–106. Retrieved 9 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Campbell, Paul. "A Brief History of Providence City Hall". City of Providence. Retrieved 9 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Post Card Collection: Old Market House Market Square toward East end of Westminster St". Providence Public Library. PPL Rhode Island Image Collection. Retrieved 9 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "A Brief History of City Hall". City of Providence. Retrieved 9 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. RI-74, "Market House, Market Square, Providence, Providence County, RI", 9 photos, 3 data pages, supplemental material
- Cady, John Hutchins (October 1952). "The Providence Market House and its Neighborhood" (PDF). Rhode Island Historical Society. II (4): 97–117. Retrieved 6 July 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
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