March for the Equal Rights Amendment

The March for the Equal Rights Amendment took place on July 9, 1978 in Washington, DC. Over 100,000 people marched for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.

1978 March for the Equal Rights Amendment, Washington, DC

Speakers edit

There were 35 notable speakers at the march organized by the National Organization for Women.[1][2]

Attendees edit

Many prominent women's rights activists participated in this march including Gloria Steinem, Pauli Murray and Betty Friedan.[3][4]

Issues edit

The amendment proposed equal rights for women, and was first introduced to Congress in 1923, finally gaining Congressional approval in 1972.[5] Once Congress had approved the amendment, ratification by the states was requested and the typical 7-year time limit for ratification by two-thirds of the states was set in motion.[6] The march was held to convince legislators that the period allowed for ratification should be extended beyond the deadline, which would occur on 29 March 1979.[7] Protesters were successful in getting the House to approve an extension to 1982 in August, 1978 and the Senate to grant approval of the same time frame by a vote of 60 to 36 in October 1978. It was the first time that a proposed amendment to the Constitution had ever had its ratification period extended.[8][9] Since 1982, extension of the ratification has been reintroduced in every legislative session.[10]

Timeline edit

  • March 22, 1972 - amendment passed in Congress
  • 1977 - amendment approved by 35 of 50 states
  • 1978 - not ratified, (3 states short)
  • 1982 - deadline for ratification. 15 states did not approve.
  • 1994 - 12 states did not approve ratification
  • 1995–2016, ERA bills were passed however not all of the bills passed both Senate and House
  • 2003 - House approved ratification, however Senate did not
  • 2014 - Senate approved, however House did not
  • 2017 - Nevada approved
  • 2018 - Illinois approved; Thirteen states had not yet approved[10]

Outcome edit

The amendment still has not been ratified by all of the states to become a part of the Constitution of the United States.[11][12]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Bennetts, Leslie (July 7, 1978). "Supporters of the Equal Rights Amendment Gathering for March in Washington Sunday". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  2. ^ Dismore, David. "July 9, 1978: Feminists Make History With Biggest-Ever March for the Equal Rights Amendment". Feminist Majority Foundation. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  3. ^ "July 9, 1978: Feminists Make History With Biggest-Ever March for the Equal Rights Amendment – Feminist Majority Foundation". Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  4. ^ "Pauli Murray and other woman marching. Most women are wearing white and some are wearing or carrying banners of purple, white and gold". Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  5. ^ "July 9, 1978". The Ottawa Journal. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 30 September 1978. p. 106. Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via  
  6. ^ Kilpatrick, James J. (26 May 1978). "Playing dirty pool and the ERA". The Salina Journal. Salina, Kansas. p. 4. Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via  
  7. ^ Cimons, Marlene (16 July 1978). "There's right way, wrong way to lobby". The Pantagraph. Bloomington, Illinois. p. 41. Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via  
  8. ^ "Myers opposes ERA stay". New Castle, Pennsylvania: The New Castle News. 19 August 1978. p. 5. Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via  
  9. ^ "Opponent promises challenges to ERA ratification extension". Iola, Kansas: The Iola Register. AP. 6 October 1978. p. 12. Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via  
  10. ^ a b "ERA". Equal Rights Amendment. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  11. ^ Francis, Roberta W. "The History Behind the Equal Rights Amendment". The Equal Rights Amendment: Unfinished Business for the Constitution. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  12. ^ "National ERA March on Washington D.C. or "March for Equality" — 1978". Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved 17 January 2017.