Mar Hormizd Syro-Malabar Cathedral, Angamaly

Mar Hormizd Cathedral, locally known as the Eastern Church of Angamaly (Malayalam: അങ്കമാലി കിഴക്കേപ്പള്ളി, romanizedAngamali Kiḻakkeppaḷḷi) or the Cathedral Church (Malayalam: അരമനപള്ളി, romanizedAramanappaḷḷi), is a Syro-Malabar church in Angamaly, India. It was created cathedral in 1577 by Mar Abraham, the last East Syriac Metropolitan to reach Malabar Coast. It is one of the oldest and is historically the most important of the three ancient Syrian churches in Angamaly.[5][3][6][7] It is dedicated to Mar Hormizd, a seventh-century East Syriac saint.[8][9]

Angamali East Church
Mar Hormizd Syro-Malabar Catholic Co-cathedral Church, Angamaly
Mar Hormizd Syro-Malabar Church, Angamaly
10°11′20″N 76°23′18″E / 10.188935°N 76.38836°E / 10.188935; 76.38836
LocationAngamaly, Kerala
DenominationCatholic Church
Sui iuris churchSyro-Malabar Church, formerly Chaldean Catholic Church[1]
TraditionEast Syriac Rite
Former name(s)Mar Hormizd Metropolitan Cathedral
Founder(s)Abraham of Angamaly[3]
DedicationHormizd Rabban[3]
Cult(s) presentformer cathedral of Saint Thomas Christians
Relics heldMar Abraham
EventsFestival of St .Hormis and St. Sebastian
Past bishop(s)Mar Abraham
Associated peopleSaint Thomas Christians
ArchdioceseSyro-Malabar Catholic Major Archeparchy of Ernakulam-Angamaly
ParishSt. George Syro-Malabar Basilica, Angamaly
ArchbishopMar Raphael Thattil

The Chaldean bishop Mar Abraham was ordained as the Archbishop of Angamali[10] and Rabban Hormiz Church was the Cathedral church.[11] Mar Abraham came to Malabar in 1570, as a Chaldean Catholic Archbishop, after being previously imprisoned by the Portuguese in Goa.[12] Angamaly, being a centre of Saint Thomas Christians and being an inland settlement ruled by native kings, provided a safer headquarters to the Chaldean archbishop and therefore he settled Angamaly as his episcopal see to govern the Syro-Malabar Church of India.[13] Its jurisdiction extended all over the Indian subcontinent until the 16th century. This title denotes a quasi-patriarchal status with all India jurisdiction.[14][15][16] The church houses the tomb of Mar Abraham who died in 1597.[17][18] The most ancient school (university in Portuguese accounts) for Malpan (ecclesiastical) training was functioning at Angamaly next to the Cathedral Church, much before the arrival of the Portuguese.[19][20][21][11] Following the death of Mar Abraham, the padroado Roman Catholics, led by Archbishop of Goa Alexis de Menesis, managed to block the arrival of further Syriac bishops and succeeded in organising the Synod of Diamper, a pseudo-diocesan synod, and forcibly brought the Syro-Malabar Christians under their jurisdiction. The Synod questioned the status of the cathedral, anathematized Rabban Hormizd and decreed to replace the patron saint's name and commemorations with that of Hormizd the Martyr.[22] The church, however, retained that cathedral status until Francisco Roz moved the diocesan headquarters to Kodungallur.[23]

History edit

Mar Hormizd Church, the Metropolitan Church edit

After having made a successful escape from the Portuguese detention in Goa, Mar Abraham returned to Angamaly in 1570. In the same year, Mar Abraham started to construct his Cathedral Church in patronage of Rabban Hormizd, a seventh-century Abbot of the East Syriac Church, as its patron.[12][22]

In 1578, as a response to the requests made on the part of the Jesuit missionaries who had been working in Angamaly and in the other centres of the Christians of St. Thomas, the pope sent plenary indulgences to the Cathedral of Rabban Hormizd which the faithful could obtain four times a year for 25 years from the year of the election of the Metropolitan Mar Abraham. The indulgences covered two feasts of the Patron Rabban Hormizd that fell on the fifteenth day after Easter (Monday) and on the first of September. As requested by Mar Abraham, the Jesuits laid the foundation stone of a new Cathedral Rabban Hormizd in the same place that was chosen by the Metropolitan.[3]

Accounts by some authors edit

Antonio de Gouvea, in his book Jornada do Arcebispo de Goa Dom Frey Aleixo de Meneses (1606), the travelogue of Alexis de Menezes the padroado Archbishop of Goa who convened the Synod of Diamper, gives an account of the churches in Angamaly:

Angamalle (Angamali) has three big churches, the Cathedral had been dedicated to Hermusio (Hormusio) Abbot, a Nestorian heretic, and very important head of this heresy; the Archbishop changed its name to Saint Hormisda, martyr of Persia, which is the same name in the Malabar language, and persuaded the people that that was the Patron Saint of that church, that they were mistaken about the day and the legend of his life, and he ordered the burning of the book on the life of the said Hormusio, for having many errors and heresies, which he first showed to all the Cassanars, which they confessed to be so.

— Antonio de Gouvea, Jornada do Arcebispo de Goa Dom Frey Aleixo de Meneses (1606), Malekandathil 2003, p. 350
Tomb of Mar Abraham inside the Madbaha of Mar Hormizd Church, Angamaly

Anquetil Du Perron, who visited Malabar in the eighteenth century, gives the following list and description of churches in Angamaly in the country of the Velutha Thavali ruler:[23]

  1. Church of the Holy Virgin (valiyapalli or Great Church) co-owned by Syrian Catholics and schismatics (the present St George Syro-Malabar Catholic Basilica).[12] It has a chapel dedicated to Saint George (now defunct) in which both Syrian Catholics and schismatics celebrate their liturgies one after the other.[23]
  2. Another church dedicated to Saint Hormisdas the Martyr. It is used exclusively by the Syrian Catholics. It was the Cathedral church of the diocese before its see was moved to Cranganore.[23]
  3. Another church which is also dedicated to the Holy Virgin. It is known locally as the Cheriyapally (Minor Church). It is the headquarters of Archdeacon Thoma I and it is used exclusively by the schismatics.[23] It is the present day St. Mary's Jacobite Church.[12]

He then mentions a fourth church in the country of the Velutha Thavali, which is at Akaparambu and dedicated to Saint Gervasis, co-owned by Syrian Catholics and schismatics.[23] Now the original church in Akaparambu went to the Jacobites while the Syro-Malabar Catholics constructed their own church in the property allotted to them.[12] Meanwhile the Great Church of Angamaly became exclusive to the Catholics and the Jacobites received the Minor Church of Angamaly.[12]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "St. Hormis Church, Angamaly East". Syro-Malabar Church. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  2. ^ Menon, A. Sreedhara (1965). Kerala District Gazetteers: Ernakulam. The Superintendent of Government Presses, Government Press, Trivandrum. p. 825.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Malekandathil (2020).
  4. ^ "Archdiocese of Ernakulam-Angamaly". Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  5. ^ Ayyar (1931), p. 152.
  6. ^ Encyclopaedia of sects & religious doctrines, Volume 4 By Charles George Herbermann page 1180,1181
  7. ^ Bas, Charles Webb Le (1831). The life of Thomas Fanshaw Middleton, bishop of Calcutta. p. 311.
  8. ^ Fr. Varghese Pathikulangara CMI (2011). Divine Praises in Aramaic Tradition (PDF). Kottayam: Denha Services. p. 48. ISBN 978-93-81207-02-4.
  9. ^ "St.George Basilica Church, Angamaly". Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  10. ^ Herbermann, Charles George (2005). Encyclopaedia of sects & religious doctrines, Volume 4. Cosmo Publications. p. 1181. ISBN 9788177559385. ....and Abraham succeeded also in obtaining his nomination and creation as Archbishop Angamale from the pope, with letters to the Archbishop of Goa, and to the Bishop Cochin dated 27 Feb 1565.
  11. ^ a b "St. Hormis Church, Angamaly | Mural Paintings in Kerala Churches | Christianity in Kerala | Kerala Tourism". Kerala Tourism. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Pius Malekandathil , “Angamali And The St. Thomas Christians: An Historical Overview” in Angamali And The St. Thomas Christians: An Historical Overview
  13. ^ Perczel, István (2018). Daniel King (ed.). Syriac Christianity in India. The Syriac World. Routledge. pp. 653–697. ISBN 9781317482116.
  14. ^ Joseph Thekkedathu, pous cit pp96-100
  15. ^ Rev Dr Placid Podipara, The Hierarchy of Syro Malabar Church, in Collected works of Rev Dr Placid Podipara CMI, Vol I p 719
  16. ^ For full details cf. the many passages in the Thomapedia, 1973/2000, Ed.George Menachery
  17. ^ Language of religion, language of the people: medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,Ernst Bremer, Susanne Röhl Page 401
  18. ^ "Book Review:The Nazranies by Prof. George Menanchery". 31 July 2007.
  19. ^ Melchior Carneiro. Antonio da Silva Rego (ed.). "Informação do que fez o Padre Mestre Melchior Carneiro em uns Reinos que estão junto de Cochim pela terra dentro". Documentação para a Historia das Missões do Padroado Portugues do Oriente (in Portuguese) (1952 ed.). Lisbon. 8: 498-9. O que aconteçeo foi que, entrando o padre polla terra dentro, se foi primeiro so reino de Angamale, onde estes christãos tem sua universidade, porque está naquella terra hum caçanar, que he como padre antre elles, em que elles muito estribão, por sua antiguidade e letras, o qual avera cinquoenta annos que lee a Escritura e tem ahi muitos dis cipulos de toda a terra do Malavar. E lee a Escritura na lingos syrica e os discipulos se exerçitio, logo no prin cipio, a escrever a Escritura e a ensinar-se por ella. E o modo que tem de aprender he escrever as lições que lhe dão, e tem nisto muito exerçiçio. Isto he quanto a materia de suas letras. Quanto a maneira de seu culto divino, be rezarem suas oras na igreja, polla manhãa e a noite, e a mor parte da gente acode, polla manhia e a noite, a adorar huma cruz, que tem na igreja, porque não consitem imagens, senão são hum ou dois lugares que tem mais comonicação com os portugueses Outro he que celebrão huma missa, que chamão missa de Nestor, na qual tem muyta devação, segundo entendeo de hum caçanar. Em a Ave-Maria não nomeão a Nossa Senhora por Madre de Deos, senão por Madre de Christo, contra a determinação do Concilio Ephesino. Tere outros muitos erros contra o direito postivo, o qual ainda não receberio, poe lhes não ser solénemente publicado.
  20. ^ Du Jarric, tom. I, lib. II, p. 614
  21. ^ Du Jarric, "Rer. Ind. Thesaur.", tom. III, lib. II, p. 69
  22. ^ a b Geddes, Michael (1694). The History of the Church of Malabar, from the Time of Its Being First Discover'd by the Portuguezes in the Year 1501. Sam. Smith, and Benj. Walford. p. 150.
  23. ^ a b c d e f du Perron, Anquetil. "Zend Avesta". I: clxxxv–clxxxvj. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Sources edit