Manuel III of Kongo

Manuel III Afonso of Kongo, previously Manuel Martins Kiditu, was the last Mwenekongo (ruler) of the Kingdom of Kongo, ruling as a vassal of the Portuguese empire from 1911 to 1914.[1]

Manuel III of Kongo c. 1912

The royal family of Kongo chose Manuel Martins Kiditu as ruler in 1910, on the death of Pedro Mbemba, who had been Regent. Educated at Portuguese schools in Luanda and Huila, he was later described as "wise in the ways and customs of white men".[2]

Manuel's reign over the reduced territory of the kingdom was ended by a revolt in 1914, at which point the Portuguese abolished the kingdom and assimilated the territory into the colony of Angola. By 1915, Manuel III also lost much of his claim to the throne, as the royal family recognized Álvaro XV Afonso Nzinga as ruler instead.


  1. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Angola Traditional states". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  2. ^ Maria Emília Madeira Santos, A Africa e a instalação do sistema colonial (c.1885-c.1930): III Reunião Internacional de História de África (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga, 2000), p. 357