The term makibishi (撒き菱 or 撒菱) refers to the Japanese version of the caltrop.
Makibishi (igadama), sharp spiked objects that were used in feudal Japan to slow down pursuers and also were used in the defense of samurai fortifications.Makibishi were one of the items supposedly used by ninja. Iron makibishi were called tetsubishi while the makibishi made from the dried seed pod of the water chestnut formed a natural type of makibishi called tennenbishi. Both types of makibishi could penetrate the thin soles of the shoes such as the waraji sandals that were commonly worn in feudal Japan when the makibishi was dropped on the ground or planted in advance.  Makibishi could be carried in a bag attached to a belt along with other commonly carried weapons and/or tools such as shuriken and kaginawa. Makibishi could be thrown like a shuriken and could also be used against an enemy on horseback.
- Japanese Castles AD 250--1540, Stephen Turnbull, Peter Dennis, Osprey Publishing, 2008 P.32
- Samurai, warfare and the state in early medieval Japan, Karl F. Friday, Psychology Press, 2004 P.119
- Pauley's Guide - A Dictionary of Japanese Martial Arts and Culture, Daniel C. Pauley Samantha Pauley, 2009 p176
- Comprehensive Asian fighting arts, Donn F. Draeger, Robert W. Smith, Kodansha International, 1980 p.127
- Warriors of Medieval Japan, Stephen Turnbull, Osprey Publishing, 2007 p.162
- Comprehensive Asian fighting arts, Donn F. Draeger, Robert W. Smith, Kodansha International, 1980 P.127
- Exotic weapons of the Ninja, Sid Campbell, Citadel Press, 1999 P.100
- Media related to Makibishi at Wikimedia Commons