MPEG-1 Audio Layer I

MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, commonly abbreviated to MP1, is one of three audio formats included in the MPEG-1 standard. It is a deliberately simplified version of MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, created for applications where lower compression efficiency could be tolerated in return for a less complex algorithm that could be executed with simpler hardware requirements. While supported by most media players, the codec is considered largely obsolete, and replaced by MP2 or MP3.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer 1
Filename extension.mp1
Internet media typeaudio/mpeg,[1] audio/MPA[2]
Initial release1993; 27 years ago (1993)[3]
Type of formatAudio compression format, audio file format
Contained byMPEG-ES
StandardISO/IEC 11172-3,[3]
ISO/IEC 13818-3[4]

For files only containing MP1 audio, the file extension .mp1 is used.

MPEG-1 layer I was also used by the Digital Compact Cassette format, in the form of the PASC audio compression codec. Because of the need of a steady stream of frames per second on a tape-based medium, PASC uses the rarely used (and under-documented) padding bit in the MPEG header to indicate that a frame was padded with 32 extra 0-bits (four 0-bytes) to change a short 416-byte frame into 420 bytes. The varying frame size only occurs when a 44.1 kHz 16-bit stereo audio signal is encoded at 384 kilobits per second, because the bitrate of the uncompressed signal is not an exact multiple of the bitrate of the compressed bit stream.[5]


MPEG-1 Layer I is defined in ISO/IEC 11172-3, which first version was published in 1993.

  • Sampling rates: 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz
  • Bitrates: 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 288, 320, 352, 384, 416 and 448 kbit/s[6]

An extension has been provided in MPEG-2 Layer I and is defined in ISO/IEC 13818-3, which first version was published in 1995.

  • Additional sampling rates: 16, 22.05 and 24 kHz
  • Additional bitrates: 48, 56, 80, 112, 144 and 176 kbit/s[6]

MP1 uses a comparatively simple sub-band coding, using 32 sub-bands.[7]


  1. ^ "The audio/mpeg Media Type - RFC 3003". IETF. November 2000. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  2. ^ "MIME Type Registration of RTP Payload Formats - RFC 3555". IETF. July 2003. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  3. ^ a b "ISO/IEC 11172-3:1993 - Information technology -- Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s -- Part 3: Audio". ISO. 1993. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  4. ^ "ISO/IEC 13818-3:1995 - Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information -- Part 3: Audio". ISO. 1995. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  5. ^ DCC faq: PASC
  6. ^ a b "MPEG Audio Frame Header". 2003-08-03. Archived from the original on 2015-02-08. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  7. ^ "The Free Dictionary: MPEG-1 audio layer 1".

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