Lwów–Warsaw school

  (Redirected from Lwów–Warsaw school of logic)

The Lwów–Warsaw School (Polish: Szkoła Lwowsko-Warszawska) was a Polish school of thought founded by Kazimierz Twardowski in 1895 in Lemberg (Polish name: Lwów), Austro-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine).

Though its members represented a variety of disciplines, from mathematics through logic to psychology, the Lwów–Warsaw School is widely considered to have been a philosophical movement.[1] Developed in the 1920s and 1930s, the school's work was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. Despite this, its members went on to fundamentally influence modern science, notably mathematics and logic, in the post-war period.


Polish philosophy and the Lwów–Warsaw school were considerably influenced by Franz Brentano and his pupils Anton Marty, Alexius Meinong, and Edmund Husserl.

Principal topics of interest to the Lwów–Warsaw school included formal ontology, mereology, and universal or categorial grammar.

The Lwów–Warsaw School began as a general philosophical school but steadily moved toward logic. The Lwów–Warsaw school of logic lay at the origin of Polish logic and was closely associated with the Warsaw School of Mathematics.

In the 1930s Alfred Tarski initiated contacts with the Vienna Circle. Tarski, the most prominent member of the Lwów–Warsaw School, has been ranked as one of the four greatest logicians of all time, along with Aristotle, Gottlob Frege, and Kurt Gödel.[2][3][4]

In contemporary Polish learning, the philosopher Jan Woleński considers himself close to the School's heritage. In 2013 Woleński was awarded by the Foundation for Polish Science for his comprehensive analysis of the work of the Lwów–Warsaw school and for placing its achievements within the international discourse of contemporary analytic philosophy.[5]


Warsaw University Library. Atop columns: statues (facing entrance) of Lwów–Warsaw School philosophers: Kazimierz Twardowski, Jan Łukasiewicz, Alfred Tarski, and Stanisław Leśniewski

Many of the School's members worked in more than one field.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Jan Woleński, Filozoficzna szkoła lwowsko-warszawska, Warsaw, PWN, 1985.
  2. ^ Feferman & Feferman, p. 1
  3. ^ Vaught, Robert L. (Dec 1986). "Alfred Tarski's Work in Model Theory". Journal of Symbolic Logic. ASL. 51 (4): 869–882. doi:10.2307/2273900. JSTOR 2273900.
  4. ^ Restall, Greg (2002–2006). "Great Moments in Logic". Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  5. ^ "Prof. Jan Woleński, PhD hab. – FNP Prize 2013 laureate". Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-11.


  • Brożek, A., A. Chybińska, J. Jadacki, and Jan Woleński, eds., Tradition of the Lvov-Warsaw School. Ideas and Continutaions, Leiden, Boston, 2015.
  • Brożek, A., F. Stadler, and Jan Woleński, eds., The Significance of the Lvov-Warsaw School in the European Culture, Wien, 2017.
  • Coniglione, F., Polish Scientific Philosophy: The Lvov–Warsaw School, Amsterdam, Atlanta, 1993.
  • Drabarek, A., Jan Woleński, and M.M. Radzki, eds., Interdisiplinary investigations into the Lvov-Warsaw School, Cham, 2019.
  • Feferman, Anita Burdman; Feferman, Solomon (2004). Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80240-6. OCLC 54691904.
  • Garrido, Á., and U. Wybraniec-Skardowska, eds., The Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present, Basel, 2018.
  • Jadacki, J.J., Polish Analytical Philosophy, Warsaw, 2009.
  • Jadacki, J., and J. Paśniczek, eds., The Lvov-Warsaw School – The new generation, Poznań Studies in the Philosophy of Science and Humanities, vol. 89, Polish Analytical Philosophy, vol. VI, Amsterdam, Atlanta, 2006 ISBN 978-90-420-2068-9.
  • Jordan, Z., The Development of Mathematical Logic and of Logical Positivism in Poland between Two Wars, Oxford, 1945.
  • Kijania-Place, K., and Jan Woleński, eds., The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy, Dordrecht, 1998.
  • Marion M., W. Miśkiewicz, S. Lapointe, and Jan Woleński, eds., The Golden Age of Polish Philosophy: Kazimierz Twardowski's Philosophical Legacy, Dordrecht, 2009 ISBN 90-481-2400-X.
  • McFarland, A., J. McFarland, and J.T. Smith, eds., Alfred Tarski: Early Work in Poland – Geometry and Teaching, Basel, 2010.
  • Skolimowski, H., Polish Analytical Philosophy. London, 1967.
  • Smith, B., Austrian Philosophy, Chicago, 1994.
  • Szaniawski, Klemens, ed., The Vienna Circle and the Lvov–Warsaw School, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 1989.
  • Woleński, Jan, Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov–Warsaw School, Dordrecht, Boston, Lancaster, Reidel, 1989.

External linksEdit