Lu Commandery (Chinese: 魯郡) was a Chinese commandery that existed from Han dynasty to Tang dynasty. It was located in present-day southern Shandong province.

The commandery's predecessor was the Xue Commandery (薛郡), an administrative division established during Qin Shi Huang's reign on the former territories of Lu state. In early Western Han, it was part of the Kingdom of Chu, a vassal kingdom/principality of the Han dynasty. In 155 BC, Emperor Jing created a separate Principality of Lu, and granted it to his son Liu Yu. Yu's descendants held Lu until the Xin dynasty, when the prince was deposed and Lu became a commandery. In 2 AD, the principality consisted of 6 counties: Lu (魯), Bian (卞), Wenyang (汶陽), Fan (蕃), Zou (騶) and Xue (薛).[1]

In Eastern Han, Lu Commandery was initially granted to Liu Xing (劉興). However, Lu was later merged to the Principality of Donghai (東海) while Xing was relocated to Beihai. After the death of Liu Qiang (彊), Prince Gong (恭) of Donghai, the central government took over Donghai Commandery, and the principality's territory became equivalent to Lu Commandery.[2]

The commandery once again became the Principality of Lu in 232, when the Cao Wei dynasty granted it to Cao Wen (曹溫). The commandery was restored with the establishment of Jin dynasty. In Song dynasty, the commandery administered 6 counties, including Zou, Wenyang, Lu, Yangping (陽平), Xinyang (新陽), and Bian. It was eventually abolished during Northern Qi.[3]

In Sui and Tang dynasties, Lu Commandery became the alternative name for Yan Prefecture. It included 10 counties: Xiaqiu (瑕丘), Qufu (曲阜), Qianfeng (乾封), Sishui (泗水), Zou (鄒), Rencheng (任城), Gongqiu (龔丘), Jinxiang (金鄉), Yutai (魚台) and Laiwu (萊蕪).[4]

PopulationEdit

Dynasty Western Han Eastern Han Western Jin Liu Song Northern Wei Sui dynasty Tang dynasty
Year 2 140 280 464 534 609 742
Households 118,045[1] 78,447[5] 3,500[6] 4,604[7] 15,160[8] 124,019[3] 88,987[4]
Population 607,381 411,590 28,307 47,329 580,608

Princes of Lu and DonghaiEdit

  • Liu Yu (餘), Prince Gong (共) of Lu, 155 BC – 128 BC;
  • Liu Guang (光), Prince An (安) of Lu, 128 BC – 88 BC;
  • Liu Qingji (慶忌), Prince Xiao (孝) of Lu, 88 BC – 51 BC;
  • Liu Feng (封), Prince Qing (頃) of Lu, 51 BC – 23 BC;
  • Liu Suo (睃), Prince Wen (文) of Lu, 23 BC – 4 AD;
  • Liu Min (閔), 4 – 9;
  • Liu Xing (興), Prince Jing (靖) of Beihai, 26 – 42;
  • Liu Qiang (彊), Prince Gong (恭) of Donghai, 42 – 58;
  • Liu Zheng (政), Prince Jing (靖) of Donghai, 58 – 102;
  • Liu Su (肅), Prince Qing (頃) of Donghai, 102 – 125;
  • Liu Zhen (臻), Prince Xiao (孝) of Donghai, 125 – 156;
  • Liu Zhi (祗), Prince Yi (懿) of Donghai, 156 – 200;
  • Liu Xian (羨), 200 – 220;
  • Cao Wen (溫), 232 – 265.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Book of Han, Chapter 28.
  2. ^ Book of Later Han, Chapter 42.
  3. ^ a b Book of Sui, Chapter 30.
  4. ^ a b New Book of Tang, Chapter 38.
  5. ^ Book of Later Han, Chapter 110.
  6. ^ Book of Jin, Chapter 14.
  7. ^ Book of Song, Chapter 35.
  8. ^ Book of Wei, Chapter 106.