Low-power wide-area network

A low-power, wide-area network (LPWAN or LPWA network) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long-range communication at a low bit rate between IoT devices, such as sensors operated on a battery.

Low power, low bit rate, and intended use distinguish this type of network from a wireless WAN that is designed to connect users or businesses, and carry more data, using more power. The LPWAN data rate ranges from 0.3 kbit/s to 50 kbit/s per channel.

A LPWAN may be used to create a private wireless sensor network, but may also be a service or infrastructure offered by a third party, allowing the owners of sensors to deploy them in the field without investing in gateway technology.


  1. Range: The operating range of LPWAN technology varies from a few kilometers in urban areas to over 10 km in rural settings. It can also enable effective data communication in previously infeasible indoor and underground locations.
  2. Power: LPWAN manufacturers claim years to decades of usable life from built-in batteries, but real-world application tests have not confirmed this.[1]

Platforms and technologies


Some competing standards and vendors for LPWAN space include:[2]

  • DASH7, a low latency, bi-directional firmware standard that operates over multiple LPWAN radio technologies including LoRa.
  • Wize is an open and royalty-free standard for LPWAN derived from the European Standard Wireless Mbus.[3]
  • Sigfox, UNB-based technology and French company.[4]
  • LoRa is a proprietary, chirp spread spectrum radio modulation technology for LPWAN used by LoRaWAN, Haystack Technologies, and Symphony Link.[5][6]
  • MIoTy, implementing Telegram Splitting technology.
  • Weightless is an open standard, narrowband technology for LPWAN used by Ubiik
  • ELTRES, a LPWA technology developed by Sony, with transmission ranges of over 100 km while moving at speeds of 100 km/h.[7]
  • IEEE 802.11ah, also known as Wi-Fi HaLow, is a low-power, wide-area implementation of 802.11 wireless networking standard using sub-gig frequencies.[8]

Ultra-narrow band


Ultra Narrowband (UNB), modulation technology used for LPWAN by various companies including:


  • DASH7 Mode 2 development framework for low power wireless networks, by Haystack Technologies.[12] Runs over many wireless radio standards like LoRa, LTE, 802.15.4g, and others.
  • LTE Advanced for Machine Type Communications (LTE-M), an evolution of LTE communications for connected things by 3GPP.[13]
  • MySensors, DIY Home Automation framework supporting different radios including LoRa.
  • NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT), standardization effort by 3GPP for a LPWAN used in cellular networks.[14]
  • Random phase multiple access (RPMA) from Ingenu, formerly known as On-Ramp Wireless, is based on a variation of CDMA technology for cellular phones, but uses unlicensed 2.4 GHz spectrum.[15][16] RPMA is used in GE's AMI metering.[17]
  • Byron, a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technology from Taggle Systems in Australia.[18]
  • Wi-SUN, based on IEEE 802.15.4g.[19]

See also



  1. ^ Singh, Ritesh Kumar; Puluckul, Priyesh Pappinisseri; Berkvens, Rafael; Weyn, Maarten (2020-08-25). "Energy Consumption Analysis of LPWAN Technologies and Lifetime Estimation for IoT Application". Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 20 (17): 4794. Bibcode:2020Senso..20.4794S. doi:10.3390/s20174794. ISSN 1424-8220. PMC 7506725. PMID 32854350.
  2. ^ Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Cano, Maria-Dolores (2016). "State of the Art in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services". Sensors. 16 (5): 708. Bibcode:2016Senso..16..708S. doi:10.3390/s16050708. PMC 4883399. PMID 27196909.
  3. ^ Sheldon, John (2019-06-25). "French IoT Satellite Company Kinéis Announces Strategic Partnerships With Objenious And Wize Alliance". SpaceWatch.Global. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  4. ^ "SIGFOX Technology". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  5. ^ "What is LoRaWAN?". Link Labs. Retrieved 2023-01-09.
  6. ^ Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Ramon Sanchez-Iborra (2017). "Experimental comparison of LoRa and FSK as IoT-communication-enabling modulations". IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom'17). doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2017.8254530. S2CID 44010035.
  7. ^ "ELTRES Technology". Sony Semiconductor Solutions Group. Retrieved 2022-08-10.
  8. ^ IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 2: Sub 1 GHZ License Exempt Operation. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2017.7920364. ISBN 978-1-5044-3911-4.
  9. ^ "SIGFOX Technology". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  10. ^ "Weightless-N – Weightless". www.weightless.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  11. ^ "What is NB-Fi Protocol – WAVIoT LPWAN". WAVIoT LPWAN. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  12. ^ "Framework Details". haystacktechnologies.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  13. ^ Flynn, Kevin. "Evolution of LTE in Release 13". www.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  14. ^ "LTE-M, NB-LTE-M, & NB-IOT: Three 3GPP IoT Technologies To Get Familiar With". Link Labs. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  15. ^ Freeman, Mike (2015-09-08). "On-Ramp Wireless becomes Ingenu, launches nationwide IoT network". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  16. ^ "Ingenu Launches the US's Newest IoT Network". Light Reading. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  17. ^ St. John, Jeff (2013-02-01). "GE Dives Into AMI Fray With On-Ramp Wireless: Greentech Media". Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  18. ^ Guiterrez, Peter (October 13, 2016). "How Taggle is spreading LPWAN across Australia". IoT HUB. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  19. ^ "Wi-SUN Alliance". Wi-SUN Alliance. 2018-08-15. Retrieved 2019-12-16.