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Longwave

  (Redirected from Long wave)

The tuning dial on a 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing long-wave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave,[1] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m[2] i.e. frequencies[3] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz),[4][5] including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz.[6]

In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting[7] in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band"[6] (i.e., all frequencies below 525 kHz).

Contents

PropagationEdit

Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band.[8] The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, and can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.

Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna.[9]

Non-broadcast useEdit

Non-directional beaconsEdit

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signalsEdit

There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.

Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Submarine communicationEdit

The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

LowFEREdit

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allow unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna. This is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

HistoricEdit

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[10]

BroadcastingEdit

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern, central, and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria, and Morocco.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[11]

Carrier frequenciesEdit

Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French-language station, Europe #1 in Germany. This station kept correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months—only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.[clarification needed]

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[12]

Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters.[13]

Long-distance receptionEdit

Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified.[14]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmittersEdit

Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

List of stations currently operatingEdit

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[15][16][17][18]

freq.
(kHz)
station
name
language country location aerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinates notes
153 Radio Antena Satelor Romanian   Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres (820 ft) 200 45°45′22.27″N 25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, mast 1)
45°45′13.16″N 25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, mast 2)
 
NRK P1 Norwegian   Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 352 metres (1,155 ft) tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment 100 71°4′17″N 24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy long-wave transmitter) The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea
Radio Algeria
Chaîne 1
Arabic   Algeria Kénadsa Three 357 metres (1,171 ft) tall guyed masts 500 Active with very low modulation and power[19]
162 ANFR (TDF time signal) French   France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height: 350 metres (1,150 ft) fed on the top 1000
/
2000
47°10′10.45″N 2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E / 47.1695694; 2.2046528 (Allouis transmitter, mast 1)
47°10′25.34″N 2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, mast 2)
Time signal phase-modulated; the frequency broadcast France Inter until the end of 2016. Now only the time signal for public clocks is transmitted. The ANFR is in charge of this.
164 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian   Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 259 metres (850 ft) tall cable-stayed steel truss mast[20] 500 47°47′54.67″N 107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulaanbaatar transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
171 Médi 1 Arabic and French   Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres (1,250 ft) tall 1600 35°02′50.65″N 2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, mast 1)
35°02′30.27″N 2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
35°02′9.89″N 2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
183 Europe 1 French   Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 metres (890 ft), 276 metres (906 ft), 280 metres (920 ft) and 282 metres (925 ft) tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 metres (768 ft) 2000 Main antenna:
49°17′4.2″N 6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1)
49°16′55.86″N 6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2)
49°16′47.55″N 6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3)
49°16′39.18″N 6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4)
Spare antenna:
49°17′8.93″N 6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1)
49°17′1.54″N 6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2)
DRM tests after 00:00 UTC
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic   Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 metres (1,352 ft) 300 64°54′26″N 23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur long-wave mast)
198 BBC Radio 4/BBC World Service English   United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres (699 ft) 500 52°17′46.9″N 2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich mast 1)
52°17′40.4″N 2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich mast 2)
All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 metres (505 ft) 50 57°41′57.9″N 3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, main mast)
Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 metres (499 ft) 55°58′33″N 3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen mast)
Dartford Tunnel (SFN) 0.004
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic   Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 metres (725 ft) 100 65°22′22.93″N 14°20′27.29″W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W / 65.3730361; -14.3409139 (Eiðar long-wave mast)
209 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian   Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres (905.0 ft) 75 48°00′17.27″N 114°27′17.6″E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E / 48.0047972; 114.454889 (Choibalsan transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Dalanzadgad 43°31′54.43″N 104°24′41.4″E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E / 43.5317861; 104.411500 (Dalanzadgad transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres (1,156 ft) high guyed mast 30 48°57′24.52″N 89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
216 Radio Monte Carlo Info French   France Roumoules Directional aerial, three 300 metres (980 ft) high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial 700
/
1400
43°47′41.45″N 6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 1)
43°47′34.56″N 6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 2)
43°47′27.7″N 6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 3),
Backup antenna:
43°47′36.29″N 6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, long-wave backup mast)
Transmitter located in France, in operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET
225 Polskie Radio Jedynka Polish   Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 metres (1,080 ft) and 289 metres (948 ft) 1000 53°1′21.01″N 18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast)
53°1′12.83″N 18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast)
Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów radio mast (destroyed)) )
227 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian   Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast 75 46°19′25.52″N 96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
234 RTL French   Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 metres (950 ft) high, with vertical cage aerials 1500
/
2000
49°43′42.57″N 6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′49.2″N 6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′55.81″N 6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler radio mast)
Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N 6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower)
49°43′6.56″N 6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower)
49°43′12.75″N 6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower) )
243 DR Langbølge Danish   Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 metres (387 ft) steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance 50 55°40′39.27″N 11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 1)
55°40′32.91″N 11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 2)
Transmitting in time slots only
252 Radio Algeria
Chaîne 3
Arabic   Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 metres (1,165 ft) 750
/
1500
36°33′58.14″N 2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza long-wave transmitter) Half transmitter power during night
RTÉ Radio 1 English   Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 metres (814 ft) 100
/
300
53°27′46″N 6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown long-wave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW, it is tentatively scheduled to cease broadcasting in June 2019[21]
270 ČRo Radiožurnál Czech   Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east-west direction), two grounded 257 metres (843 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7′32.88″N 17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, mast 1)
49°7′18.85″N 17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, mast 2)
Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends
279 TR1 Watan Radio Turkmen   Turkmenistan Ashgabat Cable-stayed steel truss mast 150 37°51′14.89″N 58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E / 37.8541361; 58.3661083 (Ashgabat transmitter) Almost no modulation

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactiveEdit

  Closed
freq.
kHz
station
name
country location aerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinates notes
153
Deutschlandfunk   Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 49°33′40.25″N 9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1) ; 49°33′33.53″N 9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2) closed
Radio Mayak   Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650 closed
YuFM   Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 56°45′30.04″N 37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast) closed
Radio Rossii Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure 1200 50°39′16.75″N 136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter) closed
162 TRT Radyo 4   Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 39°46′23.11″N 43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46′25.86″N 43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2) inactive
Kanal Uzbekistan   Uzbekistan Tashkent 150 closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 69°22′46″N 87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ? closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii Ufa 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
171
-   Netherlands Lopik 500 closed
Radio-1   Belarus Lapichi ? 500/1000 closed
Voice of Russia   Russia Oktyabrsky 257 m metres tall antenna. 1200 closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54°54′42.62″N 21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Ukraine 1   Ukraine Krasne near Lviv Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 49°54′12.85″N 24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii   Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 55°29′16″N 83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1   Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 69°00′59.07″N 32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1   Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°50′0.89″N 38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1   Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 61°49′09.34″N 50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 62°14′15.01″N 129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.27″N 129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.31″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) closed
177 Deutschlandradio Kultur
  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 52°47′41.87″N 13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast) closed
180 TRT Radyo 2   Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 39°45′22.46″N 32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast) inactive
Radio Rossii   Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 53°11′4.92″N 158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak   Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) inactive
Kazakh Radio 1   Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250 closed
Kazakh Radio 1   Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150 closed
Kazakh Radio 1   Kazakhstan Chimkent 50 closed
189
Rai Radio 1   Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 37°29′53.05″N 14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter) closed
Sveriges Radio P1   Sweden Orlunda 300 58°25′37″N 14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 50°30′23.58″N 128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter) closed
Sakartvelos Radio   Georgia Dusheti 250 42°03′1.76″N 44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter) inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia   Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 52°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) closed[22]
Chaine 1   Algeria Berkaoui 2000 closed
Radio Mayak   Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59°59′30.01″N 30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio Mayak   Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 52°31′51.95″N 103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast), possibly 52°26′10.17″N 103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast) closed
Radio Mayak   Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°35′13.75″N 39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio Mayak   Russia Ufa 150 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
  Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek Radio-1 150 42°52′51.9″N 74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter) closed
207
RNE Radio 5   Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100 closed
Radio Ukraine 1   Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 50°29′48.8″N 30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast) closed
Jordan Radio   Jordan Al Karanah ? 31°45′55.47″N 36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45′29.66″N 36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak   Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 55°05′19.31″N 124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast) closed
Deutschlandfunk   Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 48°43′50.55″N 12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1) ; 48°43′38.46″N 12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2) closed
SNRT Al Idaâ Al-Watania   Morocco Azilal Demnate 304.8 metres (1,000 ft) tall guyed mast 400 inactive
209
Radio Mayak   Russia Tynda 150 closed 216
NRK P1   Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200 closed
Azerbaijan Radio   Azerbaijan Baku 500 closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 56°02′02.97″N 92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 51°50′02″N 113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 48°44′19.37″N 132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44′14.71″N 132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) closed
225 TRT GAP   Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 38°35′11.47″N 43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii   Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 61°23′35″N 72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter) closed
234
Radio Moldova   Moldova Grigoriopol 1000 closed
  Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000 closed
Radio 1   Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 59°39′12.32″N 30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter) closed
Public Armenian Radio   Armenia Kamo ? 500 ? closed Radio Rossii   Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 64°21′35.83″N 41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter) inactive
Radio 1   Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 53°22′59.44″N 50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′59.53″N 50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.2″N 50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.31″N 50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 59°42′51.14″N 150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 52°24′57.43″N 103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter) closed
Radio 1   Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 64°21′50.92″N 41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter) closed
243 TRT Radyo 4   Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 39°59′53.59″N 41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii   Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 43°32′18″N 131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar   Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 49°47′32.45″N 73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar   Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000 closed
252
Armenian Radio 1   Armenia Kamo 150 ? closed
Yle Radio 1   Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N 25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter), 60°58′43″N 25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Tojikston   Tajikistan Dushanbe 150 closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 55°49′6.3″N 49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast) closed (9 January 2014)[23]
261
Radioropa Info   Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 52°17′12.93″N 11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 56°43′59.86″N 37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44′10.32″N 37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′2.54″N 37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.09″N 37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.76″N 37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′3.64″N 37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150 closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50 closed
Radio Horizont   Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 42°34′35.18″N 23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter) closed
270
Radio Rossii   Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 51°46′44.37″N 55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter) closed
Radio 1   Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 48°30′43.48″N 135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30′48.75″N 135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter) closed
Radio Slovo   Russia Novosibirsk ? 150 ? closed 279
Radio Rossii   Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 51°58′1.12″N 85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 52°02′17.52″N 106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 46°50′35″N 142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii   Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 56°53′22.46″N 60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter) closed
BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo Stalitsa   Belarus Sasnovy 353.5 metres tall guyed mast 500 53°24′31″N 28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter) closed

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). "1000+meters&q=longwave#v=snippet&q=longwave&f=false Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. US: Newnes. p. 23. ISBN 0750698667.
  2. ^ a b "long wave". Macmillan Online Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  3. ^ Wave length and frequency are inversely related, with lower frequencies corresponding to longer wavelengths; 300 kHz corresponds to 1,000 m,
  4. ^ "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge.org - Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  5. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667.
  6. ^ a b "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  7. ^ Barun Roy (September 2009). Enter The World Of Mass Media. Pustak Mahal. p. 21. ISBN 81-223-1080-X.
  8. ^ Seybold, John S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55–58. ISBN 0471743682.
  9. ^ Alan Melia, G3NYK. "Understanding LF Propagation". Radcom. Bedford, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. 85 (9): 32.
  10. ^ SAQ Transmission. Archived 7 April 2015 at Wikiwix Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  11. ^ Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  12. ^ Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8.
  13. ^ "Russia says 'So long, long-wave'". 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  14. ^ http://www.classaxe.com/dx/ndb/rww/stats#top Archived 16 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ de:Langwellenrundfunk[better source needed]
  16. ^ World Radio TV Handbook
  17. ^ "MWLIST quick and easy: Europe, Africa and Middle East". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  18. ^ "MWLIST quick and easy: Asia and Pacific". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  20. ^ "Ulan Bator Longwave Transmission Mast (Ulan Bator) - Structurae". Structurae. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  21. ^ Lonergan, Aidan. "RTÉ Longwave 252 to stay until closure by June 2019 – with digital replacement planned - The Irish Post". irishpost.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  22. ^ "Wiadomości24 Polska". naszemiasto.pl. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  23. ^ Long Wave Radio Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. www.asiawaves.net

External linksEdit