Lituya Bay (//; Tlingit: Ltu.aa, meaning 'lake within the point') is a fjord located on the coast of the Southeast part of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is 14.5 km (9.0 mi) long and 3.2 km (2.0 mi) wide at its widest point. The bay was noted in 1786 by Jean-François de La Pérouse, who named it Port des Français. Twenty-one of his men perished in the tidal current in the bay.
Oblique aerial photograph of Lituya Bay in the summer of 1958. Damage from the 1958 megatsunami appears as the lighter-colored areas on the shores where trees have been stripped away.
|Location||North Pacific Ocean|
|River sources||Lituya Glacier |
|Basin countries||United States|
|Max. length||14.5 km (9.01 mi)|
|Max. width||3.2 km (1.99 mi)|
The smaller Cascade and Crillon Glaciers and the larger Lituya Glacier all spill into Lituya Bay, which is a part of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Cenotaph Island is located roughly in the middle of the bay. The entrance of the bay is approximately 500 m (0.31 mi) wide, with a narrow navigable channel.
The bay is known for its high tides, which have a range of approximately 3 m (9.8 ft). Tidal currents in the entrance reach 9.4 km/h (5.1 kn). The entrance is considered dangerous to navigation, especially when the tidal currents are running, but the interior of the bay provides good protection to anchored ships.
The same topography that leads to the heavy tidal currents also created the tsunami with the highest runup against a hillside in recorded history. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake caused a landslide in the Gilbert Inlet at the head of the bay, generating a massive megatsunami which had sufficient energy to run up the hill slope just opposite of the landslide to a height measuring 1,722 feet (525 meters), taller than the Empire State Building and snap off all the trees. There were three fishing boats anchored near the entrance of Lituya Bay on the day the giant wave occurred. One boat (the Sunmore) was sunk by the wave and debris as it attempted to exit the bay, and the two people on board (a married couple, the Wagners) were killed. The second boat, the Badger, was carried across the la Chasseuse spit into the ocean, hit by a log carried by the wave in the process and sunk but not before its occupants, the married couple, the Swansons, in spite of injuries, managed to board a skiff ultimately to be rescued. The third boat, the Edrie, crewed by father and son the Ulriches, was anchored at the opposite side of the bay entrance. The father, Howard, turned the boat to face the wave, which picked her up, snapped her anchor chain, carried her above the trees but then washed her back into the bay with no major damage. William A. Swanson and Howard G. Ulrich provided accounts of what they observed. Based on Swanson's description of the length of time it took the wave to reach his boat after overtopping Cenotaph Island near the bay's entrance, the wave may have been traveling 120 mph (193 km/hr). When it reached the open sea, however, it dissipated quickly. This incident was the first direct evidence and eyewitness report of the existence of megatsunamis.
- Guinness World Records Ltd. (2005). Guinness World Records 2006: 84.
- Mega-tsunami: Wave of Destruction. Horizon. BBC Two 12 October 2000
- Teben'kov, M.D.; Translated by R.A. Pierce (1981) , Atlas of the Northwest Coasts of America: From Beering Strait to Cape Corrientes and the Aleutian Islands with Several Sheets on the Northeast Coast of Asia, Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, p. 27, ISBN 0-919642-55-1. Spelled L'tua in translation of Tebenkov's log.
- Emmons, G. T. (1 April 1911). "Native Account of the Meeting between La Perouse and the Tlingit". American Anthropologist. 13 (2): 294–98. doi:10.1525/aa.1911.13.2.02a00080. JSTOR 659650.
- United States Coast Pilot 9. p. 130.
- "Don J. Miller, Giant Waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska". Uwsp.edu. Archived from the original on 2004-11-23. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- Casey, Susan. The Wave. Doubleday, 2010, pp. 153-158
- E. W. Eickelberg, Lituya Bay, Gulf of Alaska. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FIELD ENGINEERS BULLETIN no. 10, December 1936
- World's Biggest Tsunami: The largest recorded tsunami with a wave 1,720 feet (520 m) tall in Lituya Bay, Alaska
- Photos of damage from the 1958 tsunami
- Eyewitness reports of the tsunami
- History of Lituya Bay, Tsunami and Laperouse (in French)
- Giant Waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska; USGS PP 354-C